Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology
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Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Morphemes, morpheme classification, inflectional and derivational morphology

June 5, 2014


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

What is a word??

https://twitter.com/nixicon


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Morphology

morphology:subfield of linguistics that studies…

  • words, their structure, and how they are put together out of their composing parts

  • rules that determine how words are put together using these component parts

  • how meaning of a complex word is related to the meaning of its parts

  • how individual words of a language are related to other words of the language in terms of their morphological structure

    morphophonology: study of the interaction between morphology and phonology. More on morphophonology is coming up next week!


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Sound and meaning

In general, a word’s meaning or usage cannot be predicted from the speech segments that make up the word, e.g.:

English [dag]

Polish [pjɛs]

French [ʃjɛ̃]

Japanese [inu]

But there are types of words in which sound and meaning are more closely tied, e.g. onomatopoeia: word that (supposedly) imitates natural sounds

bam! fizzwoofa-choo!


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Sound and meaning


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Sound and meaning

Look at the two shapes. How would you pair these shapes with the following words?

Bouba

Kiki

sound symbolism: the idea that vocal sounds carry meaning in and of themselves:

slip slide, slurp, slither, slime, slug… but slave, slit, slow

little, teeny, cutey, Johnny, sweety… butbleed, grip, zombie


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Sound and meaning

But once we know the meanings of certain words, we CAN predict the meanings of other words, because word meaning is often compositional, e.g.:

rapid  rapidlydrink  drinkable

blue  blueishbride, Godzilla  bridezilla

And yet, the meanings of many phrases and expressions are NOT compositional:

  • idioms: to kick a bucket, to be a party pooper

  • collocations: white wine/noise/man

  • proverbs: It’s no use crying over spilled milk.

    *It’s no use crying over a broken plate.

“Jennifer is a Party Pooper”

http://youtu.be/gjwofYhUJEM


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Word vs. phoneme

morpheme: smallest meaningful unit of language and a building block of words (cf. phoneme). Also, a morpheme is identifiable from one word to another.

pegand begare two morphemes with distinct meanings, differentiated by the phonological feature [+/‐voice] and contrastive phonemes /p/ and /b/.

But /p/ and /b/ on their own do NOT carry any meaning!

Anybody want a peanut?

Anybody want some peanuts?

Anybody want some peanuts?

*Anybody want some –s?


Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

Word vs. phoneme

  • In order for something to be a word, it must:

  • have meaning

  • have at least one morpheme

  • be able to move relatively freely in a sentence (a word is a free morpheme)

  • usually be inserted between two other words, but not inside of another word

  • have one primary stress

  • Morphemes that canNOTfreely occur in a sentence (and that attach to another word) are bound morphemes, ex. –s, – er, –im. Bound morphemes are also called affixes.

  • free morphemes

    English: a, sweet, camel, library

    Spanish: y, casa, cucaracha

    bound morphemes

    -dis, -ish, -ness, -zilla, pre-

    in- (inútil), -s (casas), o(puedo)


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Morpheme classification

    (a) read‐able (b) leg‐ible

    hear‐ingaudi‐ence

    en‐large magn‐ify

    perform‐ancerend‐ition

    white‐ness clar‐ity

    dark‐en obfusc‐ate

    seek‐erapplic‐ant

    The meaning of the words in (b) and (a) are similar, but roots in (a) are free morphemes, while roots in (b) are bound morphemes!

    What about words like…?

    cranberry huckleberry loganberryraspberry

    There are no words like cran, huckle, logan, and rasp, or at least not with the relevant meaning. Words like cranberry are compounds: complex words consisting of two roots, one of which is bound! Morphemes like cranand loganare often called cranberry morphemes.


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Morpheme classification

    Words that consist of a single morpheme are classified as simple words.

    berry

    drama

    with

    swim

    restaurant

    cry

    cute

    of

    wombat

    Words that consist of more than one morpheme are classified as complex words.

    berry-s

    over-drama-tic

    house-keep-er

    swim-er

    restaurant

    cry-ing

    cute-ish

    anti-dis-establish-ment

    wombat-s


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Morpheme classification

    root: morpheme (usually free) that plays a central role, to which all other morphemes attach. Roots usually contribute the greatest meaning component to the resulting word, e.g.:

    jump+ able = jumpable (can be jumped)

    liquid+ ify = liquify(to turn into liquid)

    dog+ s = dogs (more than one dog)

    affix: bound morpheme that attaches itself to a root. Affixes are further subdivided into:

    base: that to which the affix is attaching; can be a bare root or an already affixed form

    stem: the bare root that never changes

    overdramatic

    prefix rootsuffix


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Practice!

    With a partner, complete exercise 1 on the exercise sheet.


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Morpheme classification

    infix: morpheme that gets inserted INSIDE the root instead of going to its left or right edge!

    Kharia (India)

    bhore ‘be full’ bhobre ‘fill’

    t͡ʃuwe‘leak’t͡ʃubwe ‘cause to leak’

    Bontoc(Austronesian, Philippines)

    fikas ‘strong’ fumikas‘he is becoming strong’

    bato ‘stone’ bumato ‘it is becoming a stone’

    English

    un-freaking-believable


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Morpheme classification

    circumfixes: two‐part morphemes that go AROUND the root simultaneously!

    Chickasow (Oklahoma)

    lakna ‘it is yellow’iklakno ‘it isn’t yellow’

    palli ‘it is hot’ikpallo ‘it isn’t hot’

    German

    Lieb ‘love’geliebt‘loved’

    glaub ‘believe’geglaubt‘believed’


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Morpheme classification

    There are other types of morphological processes that are not limited to prefixation and suffixation, e.g. reduplication(root or part of root is repeated).

    Agta (Austronesian, The Philippines)

    ma‐wakay ‘lost’ ma‐wakwakay ‘many things lost’

    takki ‘leg’ taktakki ‘legs’

    mag‐saddu ‘leak’ mag‐sadsaddu ‘leak in many places’

    Ilokano(Austronesian, The Philippines)

    pusa ‘cat’ puspusa‘cats’

    jojo ‘yoyo’ joj‐jojo ‘yoyos’

    English?

    chit‐chat loviedoviesee‐saw teeny weeny

    crisscross knock knockbow wow craycray

    ‘I don’t like him. I like like him!”

    Reduplication is often used iconically: repetition of the

    phonological material stands for repetition of the events of

    things (to mean repetitive action or plurality).


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Morpheme classification

    Another non-suffixal processes is zero affixation/conversion: morphological change (usually of lexical class) without any explicit phonological material, e.g. in English:

    N  VV N

    a telephone to telephoneto look a look

    a friend to friendto run a run

    a Xeroxto Xeroxto like a like

    In English these are exceptional, but some languages use them extensively, e.g.: Hebrew, Arabic use vowel change to signal derivational morphological relationships:

    Hebrew:

    sapar‘barber’

    saperverbal root ‘to get a haircut’

    English words can also change lexical class through:

    Stress change: per’mit (V.)  ‘permit (N.)

    Final consonant change: prove (V.)  proof (N.)

    defend (V.)  defense (N.)

    Vowel change: sing (V.)  song (N.)

    sit (V.)  seat (N.)


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Word classes / lexical categories

    lexical (content) morphemes

    express general informational content, a meaning that is essentially independent of the grammatical system of a particular language; open class

    functional (grammatical) morphemes

    tied to a grammatical function, expressing syntactic relationships between words in a sentence or obligatorily marked categories, such as number or tense; closed class

    Nouns: London, app, love

    Verbs: swim, devour, sleep

    Adjectives: squishy, tiny, meh

    Adverbs: often, nicely, very

    Prepositions: to, by, from, with

    Articles: the, a, an

    Pronouns:

    Auxiliaries: has, did, will, might

    Conjunctions: and, but, however

    Interjections: well, hi, gah!

    Affixes: re-, -ness, -ly, -ed, -s

    Personal: I, he, they

    Reflexive: yourself, themselves

    Possessive: my, hers, its

    Demonstrative: this, these, those

    Indefinite: each, somebody, both

    Relative: that, which, what, who

    Interrogative: where, when, whether

    Tie elements together grammatically:

    hit bya truckapples andbananas

    Express grammatical features, e.g. definiteness, gender, number, tense:

    She found a/the table vs. *She found table.

    She found many tables vs. *She found many table.

    She fixedit yesterday vs. *She fix it yesterday.


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Word classes / lexical categories

    Give me a second, I

    I need to get my story straight

    My friends are in the bathroom

    Getting higher than the Empire State

    My lover, she is waiting for me

    Just across the bar

    My seat’s been taken by some sunglasses

    Asking 'bout a scarfun. “We are young”


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Practice!

    With a partner, complete exercise 2 on the exercise sheet.


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Inflectional vs. derivational morphology

    Inflectional morphology creates new grammatical formsof the same word, but the core meaning remains the same. Also, inflectional morphology NEVER changes the word’s syntactic/lexical category, e.g.:

    key (N.)  keys (N.)

    cute (Adj.)  cuter (Adj.)

    Derivational morphology creates new words from old ones. The core meaning might change significantly, and the syntactic category of the word may change too. Also, the new word will require additional inflectional morphology required by the grammar, e.g.:

    happy (Adj.)  unhappy (Adj).

    blend (V.)  blender (N.)  blenders

    derivation

    inflection


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Inflectional morphology

    Inflectional morphology marks grammatical features of words, like plurality or tense. This morphological marking is required by syntax of the language. For example, in English, there are contexts where a verb must carry a 3rd-person singular marker:

    He goes to school vs. *He go to school

    Inflectionsdo NOT create new words but rather mark the existing ones for grammar. The meaning of the inflected word is always compositional, or predictable from the meaning of its parts, e.g.:

    piano (musical instrument) + s (plural) = pianos (more than 1 musical instrument)

    sweet (sugary flavor) + est (superlative) = sweetest (the most sweet)

    paint

    paints

    painted

    painting

    different inflectional variants of the same abstract word (lexeme): PAINT


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    English inflectional morphology

    play vs. played

    cough vs. coughing

    she knits

    book vs. books

    I vs. we, this vs. these

    they vs. them

    white vs. whiter

    loud vs. loudest

    tenseon verbs

    aspecton verbs

    numberand person on verbs

    numberon nouns

    number on pronouns

    caseon pronouns

    comparativedegree on adjectives

    superlativedegree on adjectives

    All English inflections are suffixes!


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    English inflectional morphology

    Some English inflections are irregular, e.g.:

    tooth  teethgo  wentman  menox  oxen

    dive  dove or divedchild  childrendrink  drankcactus  cacti

    • Are these all different allomorphs of the plural morpheme –s and past tense morpheme -ed?

    • If we use meaning as the basis of our analysis, then YES.

    • But because of their phonological divergence from –s and –ed, these are usually NOT considered allomorphs. Also, many of the changes involve the word root, not the affix. The phenomenon in which a single lexeme has more than one root is suppletion.


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    English inflectional morphology

    But what are the plural forms of nouns like…?

    scissors

    pants

    butter

    furniture

    knowledge

    information

    sheep

    a pair of

    a pair of

    a piece/stick of

    a piece of

    some/a lot of

    a piece of

    a flock of

    periphrasis (periphrastic form): use of one or more free morphemes (instead of inflections or derivations) to denote grammatical meaning. Also:

    more/mostintelligent

    English: ofa dog vs. Japanese: いぬの Latin: stēllae


    Morphemes morpheme classification inflectional and derivational morphology

    Inflectional morphology

    Some languages have richer inflectional systems than English.

    Italian: gender

    Il sole ‘sun’ (masc.)

    la luna ‘moon’ (fem.)

    Russian: gender

    [stul] ‘chair’ (masc.)

    [taburetka] ‘stool’ (fem.)

    [sidenje] ‘seat’ (neut.)

    Polish: case

    jeż ‘hedgehog’NOMINATIVE

    jeża ‘of a hedgehog’GENITIVE

    jeżowi ‘to a hedgehog’ DATIVE

    jeża ‘hedgehog (dir. ob.)’ACCUSATIVE

    jeżem ‘with a hedgehog’INSTRUMENTAL

    jeżu ‘about a hedgehog’LOCATIVE

    jeżu ‘you hedgehog’VOCATIVE

    Inuktitut: number

    Iglu ‘a house’

    Igluk ‘two houses’ (DUAL)

    Iglut ‘more than two houses’


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