Problem statement
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Problem Statement. The purpose of this project is to develop a low resistance breath condensate system that can handle the very high ventilations of human exercise. The system must allow for simultaneous exhaled gas and condensate collection during exercise. Background Information.

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Problem statement

Problem Statement

The purpose of this project is to develop a low resistance breath condensate system that can handle the very high ventilations of human exercise. The system must allow for simultaneous exhaled gas and condensate collection during exercise.


Background information

Background Information

  • Cells in lungs produce fluid containing mediators, ions, and cytokines

  • Analysis of the fluid can be used to diagnose respiratory ailments

  • Currently, only invasive procedures are used to obtain this fluid

    • bronchoalveolar lavage

    • induced sputem


Background information1

Background Information

  • Exhaled breath contains small amounts of the respiratory fluid that can be condensed out of breath non-invasively and analyzed

  • Currently there is a system to do this but only at rest, not while exercising (Jaeger system)


Design criteria

Design Criteria

  • Minimal resistance during expiration

  • Visible condensate collection

  • Must cool condensate without freezing

  • Minimum sample size 5mL collected in 7 minutes

  • Compatible with current system

  • Does not compromise patient safety


System schematic

System Schematic


Prototype history

Prototype History

  • Initial Prototype

    • Copper v-shape tube submerged in ice water bath

    • Limitations

      • Cumbersome cooling system

      • Invariable cooling temperature

      • Hidden condensate collection

      • Faulty test tube attachment

      • Unsophisticated heating section


Current prototype

Current Prototype

  • Collection Vial Attachment

    • Plastic cap cemented to PVC

    • Spout leads condensate into vial

  • Assembly Method

    • Epoxy copper fittings

    • Cemented PVC joints

    • Caulk sealant


Accomplishments this semester

Accomplishments this Semester

  • Optimized the system

    • Added a water pump to circulate ice water

    • Considered using electrically controlled peltier devices for cooling

    • Designed/redesigned a plunging device to extract all condensate

    • Built a second identical prototype to use in series with the first so that while one is being plunged the other is in use

    • Compared test data to theoretical values


Continued accomplishments

Continued Accomplishments

  • Filed Invention Disclosure

    • Unfortunately WARF chose not to pursue a patent or licensing for our device

  • Completed Outreach Presentations


Water circulator and plunger

Water Circulator and Plunger


Testing of prototype

Testing of Prototype


Prototype characterization

Prototype Characterization

  • Coolant temperature: 33o F

  • Air temperature at apex: 69o F

    • Cooled from exhaled breath at 98.6o F

  • Resistance added is 16%

    • Calculated from pressure drop through the system


Theoretical heat transfer

Theoretical Heat Transfer

  • Q/t = (kA (Th-Tc)) / d

    • Q/t is heat transfer per unit of time

    • k is the thermal conductivity

    • A is the area

    • T is the temperature

    • d is the thickness of the barrier

  • Our Q/t value is 196kW


Theoretical resistance

Theoretical Resistance

  • Head Loss

    • Due to contraction = 1.52 m

    • Due to 90o bend = 1.42 m

    • Total minor head loss = 1.94 m

  • Pressure drop = (h*p*g)/100000

    =3.62 mm H2O


Human subject protocol

Human Subject Protocol

  • Drafted a research protocol to incorporate device in testing

    • Study will investigate the correlation between histamine levels and bronchospasm severity in asthma, and the refractory period theory

      • Visit 1: Baseline testing

      • Visit 2:

        • 90% of max for 10-12 minutes

        • 15 minutes of rest

        • 90% of max for 10-12 minutes


Thank you

Thank you!

  • Dr. Marlowe Eldridge

  • Hans Haverkamp

  • Dave Pegelow

  • Dr. Glennys Mensing

  • Dr. Naomi Chesler


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