Self awareness metacognition
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Self-Awareness & Metacognition. March 16, 2010 Psychology 485. Outline. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvaD-29pQBY Introduction History & Definitions Self-recognition Associative processes? Metacognition Associative processes, modeling and Behavioral Economics. History.

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Self-Awareness & Metacognition

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Self awareness metacognition

Self-Awareness & Metacognition

March 16, 2010

Psychology 485


Outline

Outline

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvaD-29pQBY

  • Introduction

    • History & Definitions

  • Self-recognition

    • Associative processes?

  • Metacognition

    • Associative processes, modeling and Behavioral Economics


History

History

  • Rene Descartes

    • Cogito ergo sum

    • I think, therefore I am

  • Dualism

  • Cartesian theatre

    • A place in your head where “you” are watching things happen


1 self awareness

1. Self-awareness

  • Humans are aware of ourselves as animate beings

    • Control of own behaviour

    • Mental representation of ourselves

  • Are animals self-aware?

    • Mirror tasks


2 metacognition

2. Metacognition

  • Thinking about thinking

  • Primary vs secondary representations

  • Assessing internal states is not enough

    • Knowing that you are hungry isn’t metacognition


2 metacognition1

2. Metacognition

  • Assessing knowledge states

    • Some people know a lot about baseball, some don’t know much

  • Do you know how much you know?

    • e.g. “I really have to study for this midterm tomorrow, I don’t know anything!”

Know a lot

John is a moderate fan of baseball

Know a little


Morgan s canon

Morgan’s canon

  • Do not interpret as higher cognitive process if lower process will suffice

  • Difficult to “show” secondary representations (especially without language)

    • Can self-awareness and metacognition be explained through reinforcement history and/or associative learning?


Self awareness self recognition

Self-Awareness & Self-Recognition


Gallup s mirror test

Gallup’s Mirror test

  • A test of self-recognition, self-consciousness

  • Stages:

    • Time to adjust/experience mirror

    • Tranquilize animal and paint 2 dots (visible and control-hidden)

    • See if animal notices dot, compare to control dot

  • Animals tested: chimps, dolphins, elephants, magpies, cats?


But it can be trained

But... It can be trained?

  • Epstein, Lanza & Skinner (1981)

    • Trained pigeons to peck at blue dot

    • Experience with mirror (see blue dot in mirror, peck at origin)

    • Blue dot on pigeon, under bib

    • Peck at bib

  • video


Shaping of self observation

Shaping of Self-Observation?

Skinner

Kinds of questions we ask children reinforces self-observation

e.g., “are you hungry?” “what are you doing?”

Accurate response likely results in some form of desired outcome (i.e., reinforcement of behaviour)


Metacognition

Metacognition


Uncertainty monitoring

Uncertainty monitoring

  • Do animals know when they don’t know?

    • Dolpins, pigeons, rats, non-human primates

  • Testing procedure

    • Some trials include the option to ‘decline’

    • If animals know they don’t know, should decline to answer


Uncertainty monitoring1

Uncertainty Monitoring

Study phase:

Short or Long tone

0.66

0.33

Choice phase:

1/3 Forced Test

2/3 Choice

Test phase:

6 pellets if correct

0 pellets if incorrect

3 pellets


Uncertainty monitoring2

Uncertainty Monitoring

  • If animals have metacognition:

    • Increase use of ‘decline’ option as task difficulty increases

      • Red-green  not much use of ‘decline’

      • Light green-dark green  more use of ‘decline’

    • Accuracy is higher on ‘chosen’ tests than ‘forced’ tests

      • You choose to take the test when you know the answer

    • Accuracy difference increases with task difficulty

  • Can associative processes explain higher accuracy on ‘Chosen’ tests?


Quantitative modelling

Quantitative Modelling

  • Smith, Beran, Couchman, & Coutinho, 2008

    • Reinforcement of ‘decline’ options creates a “low frequency tendency” to decline

    • Competes with generalization gradients for each stimulus


Quantitative modelling1

Quantitative Modelling

High

Response Strength

Decline Threshold

Low

Short

Long

Subjective level of stimulus


Quantitative modelling2

Quantitative Modelling

  • Reinforcement to decline option creates a constant response-strength tendency

    • Competes with response-strength of stimuli

  • Winner-take-all mechanism

  • Since it is based on subjective view of stimuli, also accounts for difference between Chosen-Forced accuracy


Simulation data

Simulation Data

  • Shows associative processes can explain metacognition

  • Morgan’s canon?


Behavioural economic model

Behavioural Economic Model

  • Jozefowiez, Staddon& Cerutti, 2009

  • Similar to quantitative model, but measures

    • Probability of payoff

    • Risk levels (is animal risk-prone or risk-averse?)


Behavioural economic model1

Behavioural Economic Model

Short response

Long response

1.0

Probability of payoff at subjective equality is diminished

Payoff

0

Short

Long

Subjective level of stimulus


Behavioural economic model2

Behavioural Economic Model

Short response

Long response

1.0

Correct 50% of time, average reward = 3 pellets

Decline reward = 3 pellets

Payoff

Risk Neutral

0

Short

Long

Subjective level of stimulus


Behavioural economic model3

Behavioural Economic Model

Short response

Long response

1.0

Risk Averse

Would rather guarantee payoff of 3 than risk no reward

Payoff

0

Short

Long

Subjective level of stimulus


Behavioural economic model4

Behavioural Economic Model

  • More on this next week...

  • When might an animal want to guarantee some kind of payoff?

  • When might they be willing to “risk it” for the larger payoff?

  • Model accounts for changing needs, and metacognition

    • Still doesn’t assume metacognition


Awareness consciousness

Awareness & Consciousness

  • http://www.zefrank.com/theshow/archives/2007/01/010807.html

  • Is self-awareness/metacognition/consciousness necessary?

    • Why learn to be self-aware? Evolutionary advantages?


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