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Ft- Unshades. A design analysis tool based on Emulation Technologies ESA-ESTEC/17540 University of Sevilla-AICIA-ESA. Summary. Fault Injection in general What is FT-UNSHADES? What is not FT-UNSHADES? Main features Models for design analysis Cycle accurate Smart table

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Ft unshades l.jpg

Ft-Unshades

A design analysis tool based on Emulation Technologies

ESA-ESTEC/17540

University of Sevilla-AICIA-ESA


Summary l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Summary

  • FaultInjection in general

  • Whatis FT-UNSHADES?

  • Whatisnot FT-UNSHADES?

  • Mainfeatures

  • Modelsfordesignanalysis

    • Cycleaccurate

    • Smarttable

  • FT-UNSHADES for FPGA analysis

  • What can FT-UNSHADES do foryou?

  • Using FT-UNSHADES

  • Accessingto FTUNSHADES


Fault injection in general l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Fault Injection in general

  • Certain Radiation Effects over digital circuits mainly affect to the stored information in Registers and Memories.

  • These radiation effects are:

    • Single Event Upset (one register is attacked)

    • Single Event Transient (Due to propagation, one or several registers are attacked)

    • Multi Bit Upsets (Several registers simultaneously due to Layout adjacence)

  • These effects corrupt temporally the information processed by the silicon design.

  • The corruption of the information due to these effects is because 0 changes into 1 or viceversa.

  • This model is named bit-flip.

  • FAULT INJECTION means reproduce the bit-flip in a dynamic execution of the circuit in order to analyze its behavior

  • FAULT INJECTION needs two mechanisms:

    • A platform that executes the circuit

    • A method for producing a bit-flip in time.


Using run time reconfiguration for fault injection l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Using Run-Time reconfiguration for FAULT INJECTION

  • The execution is made using an SRAM-FPGA from Xilinx

  • The injection is performed using the configuration circuit

  • The injection is made modifying either the REGISTER CONTENTS or THE CONFIGURATION CIRCUIT

Modify the design behavior

Implemented design

Configuration memory

Injection over

user registers

Injection over

Config memory

Modify the register content

Configured elements


What is ftunshades l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

What is FTUNSHADES?

  • A Fault Injection system based on the concepts related to hardware debugging: observability and controlability*.

  • The method is non intrusive. The design is analyzed with little modifications.

  • Deterministic procedure of bit-flip insertion.

  • The design is analyzed using a stimuli set or application (workload)

  • Analysis of a design reliability attacking register, memory elements or configuration bits. The results are analyzed form design behavior point of view.

  • A hardware accelerator allows to speed up the analysis. (This is the meaning of emulation, instead of simulation)

  • Massive injection campaign and detailed analysis of the design are performed in the same platform.

* in this context observability means accessing to internal values of the registers, at every clock cycle. Controlability is the possibility of perturbing the circuit at any time of the workload.


What is not ftunshades l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

What is not FTUNSHADES?

  • It is not a tool for technological analysis. The effects are not treated as physical phenomena.

  • It is not exactly a tool for FPGA implementation analysis (but maybe…)

  • It is not a system for setting up experiments inside a beam (but maybe...)

FTUNSHADES is a tool for reliability analysis over a logic description of a design, so it is technology independent.


Main features l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Main features

  • A design is treated using the Xilinx standard tools.

  • The design flow can preserve the confidentiality of the design.

  • The analysis is made by means of a time-location model:

    • Time is a clock cycle of the application

    • Location is the user register (DFF, or bit of memory or SRL16) where the bit flip will be inserted.

  • The register selection is based on the hierarchical tree, allowing selective injection.


How it works l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

How it works...

OUTPUTS

  • The starting point is a traditional simulation scheme over the structural netlist of the design.

  • Input vectors are stored and inserted in a database. They will form the so called “workload”

  • The design is converted to a fully equivalent netlist in a Xilinx technology. This step is extremely critical

  • As an RTL equivalent netlist the consequences of the injections over the Xilinx netlist can be assumed in the original design

DESIGN

INPUT VECTORS

(APPLICATION)

DESIGN

WORKLOAD


Standard model l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Standard model

DESIGN

  • The model is similar to a system in an accelerator.

  • Two identical instances of the design are implemented

  • The inputs are stored in external memories and the outputs are compared between both instances

  • The clock is the same. Both instances work in parallel

  • The injection is always to the same instance. The other works for comparison.

  • The register selection is made using a demapping information provided by Xilinx

  • Time variable is also controlled

  • Deterministic attack using the design hierarchical organization

Gold

WORKLOAD

Comparator

DESIGN

Faulty

Emulator (FPGA)

Faulty

Comparator

System Clock

Workload inputs


Smart table model l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Smart Table Model

REFERENCE

TABLE

SMART CONTROLLER

  • The model is dedicated to microprocessor analysis.

  • Outputs are stored in a memory: The table

  • Inputs are stored in external memories

  • Comparison are made using the table as a reference

  • The injection is on the microprocessor netlist.

  • Software redundancy techniques would recover the system using clock cycles

  • The recovering is made using several extra instructions and the comparison is made using some recovery time.

  • The clock accurate comparison would be relaxed using the smart controller module

Software

Comparator

μPROC

Faulty

Emulator (FPGA)

Comparator

System Clock

Workload inputs


Structure of the system l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Structure of the system

FT-UNSHADES

User

Commands

(Scripts)

VCD format

INPUT VECTOR DATABASE

Session.log

TNT

Excel Sheet

BITSTREAM

Console

BIT ALLOCATION


Ft unshades analysis example l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Error Detected

After one clock cycle

Fault Inj.

CLK

FT-UNSHADES Analysis Example

CLOCK: 133937

REGISTER:leon0_mcore0_proc0_cx.c0_icache0_r.waddress_16

DAMAGE DETECTED: YES

LATENCY: 1 CLK

PORT: address

A step by step analysis can be done, dump the data in VCD format and visualize the fault evolution with a waveform viewer


Fpga analysis l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

FPGA analysis

DESIGN

  • This model Studies the behavior of the FPGA and the design under radiation

  • The objective is to evaluate reliability of the design already implemented on a particular family of FPGA

  • The results, for being considered valid, must comply several conditions:

    • The FPGA has to belong to the same family than the target

    • The design is firmly fixed in his place and route

    • The attack points are constrained to a restricted area.

  • An static analysis has to be performed previous to the dynamic analysis in order to define the database of critical configuration points.

  • Again, the design and its workload refines this database, classifying the points as critical or not critical form dynamic point of view

  • There is a strong dependence between Workload and the result of this refinement.

Gold

WORKLOAD

Comparator

DESIGN

!!

Faulty

FPGA

DATABASE OF CRITICAL POINTS

TNT

Comparator

Star-Rora

alliance

System Clock

Workload inputs


What can ft unshades do for you l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

What can FT-UNSHADES do for you?

  • FTUNSHADES will deeply analyze your modular protections using a fully deterministic fault injection method.

  • FTUNSHADES can optimize the redundancy insertion in your design. This can save area and power consumption.

  • FTUNSHADES can analyze reset net and initialization strategy

  • FTUNSHADES can provide an idea of the covering of the workload. The workload can be refined for further implementation in the acceleration test setup

  • FTUNSHADES can evaluate the strategy of redundancy in the software of an embedded processor and optimize the balance performance/area&consumption

  • FTUNSHADES allows the evaluation of the hardening of the place and route of a Xilinx FPGA.


Relevant features l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Relevant features

  • Combine fault injection campaigns with detailed analysis

  • Provide internal view of hierarchical module criticality

  • Provide the possibility of analyzing the criticality considering application time

  • A tool for optimizing the overhead of a mitigated design.

  • Preserve confidentiality of design

  • Experiences contrasted in Spanish National Accelerators Centre


Experiences l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Experiences...

Designstested:

  • Leon, Leon2 and Leon3

  • MicroBlaze

  • 8051

  • Cordic 18x18x18

  • PicoBlaze

  • RENASER RadTestdevice

  • Other ESA benchmarks...

    Publications:

  • TNS: 4, TIE:1, TIME:1 ....

  • Projects: RENASER, EMULASER, CELPAE, FTUNSHADES2, ...


Accessing to ftunshades l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Accessing to FTUNSHADES

  • FTUNSHADES is managed by the RadUs team that belongs to the Electronic Engineering Group of the University of Sevilla

  • The FTUNSHADES system is be offered to customers through an agreement with a company named AICIA

  • The accessing framework is a service. The system can be accessed also remotely.

  • Design secret is granted by

    • NDA

    • Training in the company

    • Transfer of preparation tools

    • Remote access or on site access if agreed

    • Technical support


Contacts l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

Contacts

  • http://walle.us.es/ftunshades

  • [email protected]

  • AICIA+3494487367

  • University of Sevilla

    Camino de los Descubriumientos s/n

    41092 Sevilla (SPAIN)

Hope to SEE you in RADECS 2011 !


Slide19 l.jpg

FPGA workshop. ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk

  • SS1. Special Session on Ionizing Radiation Effects on Digital Devices for Safety Critical Industrial Applications

  • Contacts: [email protected] and [email protected]

  • http://www.isie2010.it/special-sessions/approved-special-sections


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