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The Cold War (1945-1960). [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0786.gif]. With the impending defeat of Germany, the Allies needed to plan for the post-war period. [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0903.gif].

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slide2
[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0786.gif]
with the impending defeat of germany the allies needed to plan for the post war period
With the impending defeat of Germany, the Allies needed to plan for the post-war period.

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0903.gif]

slide4
The Yalta Conference (February 1945) was an effort on the part of the Allies to determine the future of Germany.
slide5

The Big Three Allies agreed to the creation of the United Nations at Yalta. Delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to adopt a charter.

[Image source: http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/department/history/site/images/UN3.jpg]

slide6
In April 1945, following the death of FDR, Vice president Harry S. Truman assumed became president of the United States.

[Image source: http://www.srmason-sj.org/web/temple-files/hall-of-honor/TRUMAN.JPG]

slide7
Even with the creation of the United Nations in 1945, there was a lot of tension between the winners of WWII.

[Image source: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/imagebank/unlogo.jpg]

slide8
[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0983.gif]
the united nations held its first meeting in san francisco during january 1946
The United Nations held its first meeting in San Francisco during January 1946.

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1031.gif]

slide12
The Five permanent members onthe Security Council were the United States, the Soviet Union, Nationalist China, Great Britain, and France.

[Image source: http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/united-nations-security-council-3.jpg]

president truman wanted the people of poland to have elections and choose their form of government
President Truman wanted the people of Poland to have elections and choose their form of government.
uncle joe said nyet
Uncle Joe said “Nyet!”

[Image source: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~1930s/PRINT/Life/life_joshmary/life_web/stalin.jpg]

slide15

After losing more than 20 million people, Russia was determined to build satellite nations on their borders that were friendly to Communism.

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0468.jpg]

josef stalin refused to cooperate with new agencies like the world bank and
Josef Stalin refused to cooperate with new agencies like the World Bank and . . .

[Image source: http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/o/maro99/bank.gif]

the international monetary fund
. . . the International Monetary Fund.

[Image source: http://www.newint.org/issue312/Images/imf.GIF]

slide18

These goals were at odds with each other. The Soviet Union helped create communist governments in: Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.

the result of these differences was a divided europe
The result of these differences was a divided Europe.

[Image source: America – Pathways to the Present, page 743.]

slide20
[Image source: http://www.dhm.de/lemo/objekte/pict/Nachkriegsjahre_karteBesatzungszonen/index.jpg]
in february of 1946 stalin predicted that communism would triumph over capitalism
In February of 1946 Stalin predicted that communism would triumph over capitalism.

[Image source: http://members.surfeu.at/horvath/stalin.htm]

slide22
Stalin established the Cominform, a Soviet agency intended to direct and co-ordinate the activities of Communist parties around the world.

[Image source: http://rocinante.colorado.edu/~mnowak/TICK/rscare.jpg]

slide23
[Image source: http://oldwww.nvg.ntnu.no/songs/arve_hjalmars/jwayne.gif]

Them sound like fightin’ words to me!

slide25
[Image source: http://www.johndclare.net/images/Iron_Curtain.jpg]
churchill s iron curtain speech was given at westminster college in fulton mo in march of 1946
Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech was given at Westminster College in Fulton, MO, in March of 1946.

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1094.gif]

slide27
[Image source: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/bkhan/Global%20History%2012/Activities/iron%20curtain.JPG]
these speeches set the tone for the cold war a period of ideological conflict and proxy wars
These speeches set the tone for the Cold War: A period of ideological conflict and proxy wars.

[Image source: http://www.reconnections.net/shadowboxing.jpg]

fears of civil war in india february 1946
Fears of civil war in India(February 1946)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1053.gif]

a bomb explodes at the king david hotel in jerusalem july 1946
A bomb explodes at the King David Hotel in Jerusalem(July 1946)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1115.gif]

britain prevents jewish refugees from arriving in palestine july 1946
Britain prevents Jewish refugees from arriving in Palestine(July 1946)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1127.gif]

nehru elected prime minister of india september 1946
Nehru elected Prime Minister of India(September 1946)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1135.gif]

discussions held on india s constitution november 1946
Discussions held on India\'s constitution(November 1946)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1181.gif]

israel proclaims its independence may 1948
Israel proclaims its independence(May 1948)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1424.gif]

slide35
In a secret telegram to the State Dept in 1946, Ambassador George Kennan outlined a policy of containment.
slide36
Containment is the policy of attempting to prevent the spread of communism by quarantining (isolating) it.

[Image source: http://www.ibiblio.org/Dave/Dr-Fun/collections/bac/bac-085.gif]

slide37
He said that if Communism couldn’t demonstrate its superiority in Russia, people would find a different ideology.
slide38
When Stalin threatened the stability of Greece and Turkey, the United States decided “Enough is enough!”

[Image source: http://www.trumanlibrary.org/teacher/europe1a.jpg]

slide39

US gave $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey. We also set up military bases in each country. “Containment” and the Truman Doctrine guided US foreign policy during the Cold War for 45 years.

slide40

Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson stated what everyone already knew: “Only two great powers remain in the world, the United States and the Soviet Union.

slide41
In March of 1947, President Truman committed the United States to support free people everywhere in resisting communism.

[Image source: http://www.soldatini.org/images/recensioni/wa004_1.jpg]

this became known as the truman doctrine

Back off, or there’ll be big trouble!

This became known as the Truman Doctrine.

[Image source: http://www.smh.com.au/ffxImage/urlpicture_id_1058034877314_2003/07/13/unclesam.jpg]

the national security act of 1947
The National Security Act of 1947
  • Department of Defense (DoD)
  • Air Force (USAF)
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • National Security Council (NSC)

We were slowly returning to a war-time mentality.

slide44
In June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall outlined his plan for rebuilding Europe following World War II.
the soviet union rejects the marshall plan july 1947
The Soviet Union Rejects the Marshall Plan(July 1947)

[Image source http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1271.gif]

slide47

Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov believed the Marshall Plan was a vicious American scheme for using dollars to “buy its way” in European affairs.

[Image source: http://digilander.libero.it/secondaguerra/molotov.jpg]

slide48
[Image source: http://www.charleslipson.com/Images/Stalin-Marshall-Plan-cartoon.jpg]
congress approved the marshall plan in 1948
Congress approved the Marshall Plan in 1948.

[Image source: http://www.marshallfoundation.org/ECA_org_chart_1949.jpg]

slide50
Known as the European Recovery Program, it sent some $13 billion in grants and loans to Western Europe.

[Image source: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/marshall/p4647.jpg]

slide52
[Image source: http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/subjects/dev_stud/images/marshall.gif]
slide53
[Image source: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI594.jpg]
gandhi is assassinated doctors oppose the setting up of the national health service january 1948
Gandhi is assassinated; Doctors oppose the setting up of the National Health Service(January 1948)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1372.gif]

slide56
As tensions rose, Stalin tightened the USSR’s hold on EastGermany and isolating West Germany (US controlled.)
slide57
The German city of Berlin was divided into a Russian-controlled sector and a sector controlled by Britain, France, and theUnited States.

[Image source: http://www.foothill.fhda.edu/divisions/unification/images/berlin.gif]

slide58
On 24th June 1948, Russia closed off Western Berlin when American, British, and French leaders merged their zones of control.

[Image source: http://www.cs.utah.edu/~hatch/images/europe/checkpoint.charlie.jpg]

the soviet union stops road and rail traffic to berlin april 1948
The Soviet Union stops road and rail traffic to Berlin(April 1948)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1409.gif]

the berlin airlift begins june 1948
The Berlin airlift begins(June 1948)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1467.gif]

slide61

The US supplied West Berlin with food, medicine, and all other materials for 2.5 million people by air for 15 months. This was known as the Berlin Airlift.

[Image source: http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter16/images/airlift.jpg]

the berlin airlift continues september 1948
The Berlinairlift continues(September 1948)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1490.gif]

trouble continues in palestine january 1949
Trouble continues in Palestine(January 1949)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1549.gif]

the berlin airlift continues february 1949
The Berlin Airlift Continues(February 1949)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1566.gif]

plans for nato published march 1949
Plans for NATO published(March 1949)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1580.gif]

india become republics april 1949
India become republics(April 1949)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1594.gif]

slide67

During the summer of 1949 Western nations made a bid for collective security when they created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

[Image source: http://www.wwnorton.com/worlds/images/map11_3.jpg]

slide68
The US seemed prepared to handle Russia with NATO, the UN, and the Truman Doctrine, but in 1949 the Communists made several advances.
george orwell s nineteen eighty four is published june 1949
George Orwell\'s Nineteen Eighty-four is published(June 1949)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1611.gif]

east germany established october 1949
East Germany established(October 1949)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1670.gif]

slide71
Problems continue when China falls to the Communist forces of Mao Zedong. The United States subsequently blocked their entry into the UN.

[Image source: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/images/mao-zedong-3.jpg]

north korea invades south korea june 1950
North Korea invades South Korea(June 1950)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1772.gif]

britain sends troops to korea to serve with the united nations july 1950
Britain sends troops to Korea to serve with the United Nations(July 1950)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1776.gif]

china enters the korean war november 1950
China enters the Korean War(November 1950)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1807.gif]

north korean advance stopped by the un january 1951
North Korean advance stopped by the UN(January 1951)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1824.gif]

iran nationalizes its oil industry march 1951
Iran nationalizes its oil industry(March 1951)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1854.gif]

a truce is signed between north and south korea november 1951
A truce is signed between North and South Korea(November 1951)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1899.gif]

the korean truce holds december 1951
The Korean truce holds(December 1951)

[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw2913.gif]

slide79

In 1955, in response to NATO, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact,a political, economic, and military alliance comprising the nations in Eastern Europe.

[Image source: http://www.wwnorton.com/worlds/images/map11_3.jpg]

slide80
Belgium

Canada

Denmark

France

Great Britain

Iceland

Italy

Luxembourg

Norway

Portugal

United States

Greece

Turkey

West Germany

Albania

Bulgaria

Czechoslovakia

East Germany

Hungary

Poland

Romania

Soviet Union (USSR)

slide81
[Image source: http://astro.temple.edu/~barbday/Europe66/resources/images/coldwar.jpg]
slide82
[Image source: http://www.nato.int/multi/interactive-maps/dl_map_en.html]
slide83
[Image source: http://www.brahler-ics.co.uk/images/infracom-nato.jpg]
slide84
President Harry Truman officially recognized Israel as a country in 1948, complicating our foreign policy with Arab nations.

[Image source: http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/0415236614/resources/maps/map71.jpg]

slide85
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed for espionage after being convicted of divulging secrets of our atomic weapons to the Russians.

[Image source: http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t304/T304779A.jpg]

slide86
America became paranoid. Truman began a Loyalty Program with FBI background checks, loyalty oaths, and a Loyalty Review Board.

Are you lookin’ at me?

slide87

Congress created the House Un-American Activities Committee which investigated charges of disloyalty. Many Hollywood stars were accused of Commie connections. Humphrey Bogart and Shirley Temple were two of them.

slide90
America had become the police state that they feared Communists wanted to create! Many lives were destroyed with false accusations.

[Image source: http://www.perthimc.asn.au/storyuploads/1999/follow.jpg]

slide91
State Department employee Alger Hiss was accused of spying for Russia and spent four years in prison.

[Image source: http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images1/hiss.jpg]

slide92
[Image source: http://www.sorvarangerfilmklubb.com/graphics/movies/1983/alger_hiss.jpg]
slide93
Image source: http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/toons/jan25_hiss_an.gif]
slide96
[Image source: http://photos1.blogger.com/img/180/2169/640/duckandcover.jpg]
slide97
[Image source: http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/sage/images/duckandcover.gif]
slide98
[Image source: http://www.piedmontcommunities.us/go/388/FSLO-1020538503-494388.jpeg]
slide99
[Image source: http://indyweek.com/durham/2002-04-03/cover2-1.jpg]
slide100
[Image source: http://www.thetalentshow.org/images/Fami0210.jpg]
slide101
[Image source: http://libwww.syr.edu/digital/exhibits/c/cartoonists/wall/21.jpg]
slide102
[Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw4277.gif]
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