National strategy
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National strategy. Core Values. Enshrined in constitution; represents basic ethos and belief of the nation. Democracy, Justice, Freedom and fraternity in secular setting. National Interests.

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National strategy

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National strategy

Core Values

Enshrined in constitution; represents basic ethos and belief of the nation. Democracy, Justice, Freedom and fraternity in secular setting.

National Interests

Emanate from these core values. It encompasses territorial integrity, political sovereignty,, economic prosperity, welfare and independence. Also, envisions the nation attaining a rightful place in int affairs, commensurate with its power both real and potential.

National Strategy

Synergied efforts of the nation state to further and protect the core values and National Vital Interests..

National Strategy

  • What are the National Interests and National Vital Interests of Nepal in the new internal and strategic Environment?

Basic and country specific National Strategy is made to promote interests. Economic, Political, Foreign and Security aims are described.

  • What is the dynamic of risks to those interests?

In the promotion of what Economic, Political, Foreign and Security threats are identified?

  • How will the country identify its national security strategy and objectives?

To counter the identified threats what Military and civil countermeasures are to be taken?


  • What roles would the country expect from friendly nations and strategic partners?

To counter the identified threats and promote the national interests what do we accept from neighbors, special friends and the regional and UN Organizations?

  • What division of labour (roles, missions, capacity) between various ministries?

How many ministries are required and and their strategies to further/protect the interests?

  • Does the nation need a State Planning Commission?

How does this commission interacts with other ministries ? How are capable individuals brought in this organization?

  • What division of labour (roles, missions, capacity) between security organizations?

Types of Army, Paramilitary forces, Police and their roles decided.

National Security Council

Cabinet Committee of National Security(CCNS)

Cabinet Sub Ctte (CSC) on Def, Foreign and Home

Strategic Policy Group (SPG)

Str Tech Gp



Think Tk/Research

Think Tk/Research

CCNS: PM, Finance, Home, Def, Foreign Ministers

CCS: Ministries input irrespective of ministriess

SPG: Natl Security Advisor ( Cabinet Rank)

Cabinet Secretary

Armed Forces Chief

Secretaries of Home, Def, MOFA and Finance

Chairman of JIC and Chief of Int Agencies

One model

Effective and democratic Security Forces

  • Up-to-date security and defense strategy: It should be publicly debated and approved by the parliament.

  • Modern Organizational structures: It should be within the defence and more widely within government.

  • Credible resource based plan: Controlled by the Parliament on what is done and how resources are used.

  • Appropriate legislative underpinning: to support national plans and international objectives..

  • Accountability: to national parliament and the publics in the narrow, financial sense and more generally for policies and operations.


  • Adequate security arrangements and access to intelligence: to facilitate exchange of classified information within government and internationally.

  • Effective arrangements for public information: To ensure transparency in respect of national policies and security forces activities and to respond to points of public and media concern.

  • Appropriate military structure: sized, trained and equipped to meet national and international obligations and objectives.

  • Trained manpower: Both the military and civilians should be trained to work in tandem.


  • What military strategy is adequate to the threats and national security strategy?

  • What are the appropriate military roles, missions and tasks and how they could be prioritized?

  • Does the entire defense organization fits to these missions?

  • What defense reorganizations are needed and how urgently should they be pursued?

  • What defense planning approach should be used to manage the Armed Forces?

Force Planning Cycle

Core Values/National Interests

Resource Constrains

Natl Obj

Tech Capacity

Pol ambitions

Int input

Natl Sec Strategy

Str partners, UN, friends

Threats Risks Challenges Opportunities

Pol, eco, mil

Natl Mil Strategy

Assessment (deficiencies and risks)

Available Forces

Needed Forces

Possible decisions

Force Management Cycle


National Vision Threat Analysis National Requirements -Democratic Process -Civilian Control -Policy and Strategy * Natl Security Concept * Defence Policy *National Mil; Strategy International Factors -Treaties -Agreements -Commitments -Aspirations National Resources

Trained and Ready Forces


Req Op Capability




Def Resource Mgmt







Criteria to evaluate Military

Timely aval


Effective int



Deploybility and mobility

Deploybility and mobility


Effective engagement



Effective CCC


Log& sustainability


Survivality & Force Protection

Hoe much is enough?


Troops No

% of GDP

Def Exp

Def Exp/Sldr
























5, 190,000





2, 900,000












Stability of a nation-state

With a view to the creation of conditions of stability, the United Nations shall promote: (Ch-IX of UN Charter)

a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development;

b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational cooperation; and

c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.

Nation’s Obligations

Nation-states exist to deliver political goods—security, education, health services, economic opportunity, environmental surveillance, a legal framework of order and a judicial system to administer it, and fundamental infrastructural requirements such as roads and communications facilities— to their citizens.

Ingredients of Un-stability

State Authority

  • When states cannot control their borders.

  • When the state loses authority over chunks of territory.

  • Expression of official power is limited to a capital city and one or more ethnically specific zones

  • As state authority weakens and fails, and as the state becomes criminal in its oppression of its citizens, so general lawlessness becomes more apparent. Ordinary police forces become paralyzed

  • Gangs and criminal syndicates assume control over the streets of the cities. Arms and drug trafficking become more common.

  • Corruption flourishes, often on an unusually destructive scale.


Religion and Culture

  • Ethnic, religious, linguistic, or other intercommunal enmity widens.


  • Where minorities and deprived are neglected from decision making.

  • Political or geographical demands for shared power or autonomy that rationalize or justify that violence.

  • Elected gradually are eliminated and the powerful come to scene who have no mandate of people.

An unstable state becomes a mere geographical expression, gradually it turns into a black hole where failed polity thrives. Only the dark energy exists.



  • When standards of living massively deteriorate.

  • When the infrastructure of ordinary life decays.

  • When the greed of rulers overwhelms their responsibilities to better their people and their surroundings

  • Deteriorating or destroyed infrastructures typify failed states. Metaphorically, the more potholes (or main roads turned to rutted tracks), the more likely a state will exemplify failure

Independent state organs


  • The judiciary is derivative of the executive rather than being independent, and citizens know that they cannot rely on the court system for significant redress or remedy, especially against the state.


  • The bureaucracy has long ago lost its sense of professional responsibility and exists solely to carry out the orders of the executive and, in petty ways, to oppress citizens.


  • The military is possibly the only institution with any remaining integrity, but the armed forces of unstable states are often highly politicized, without the esprit that they once exhibited.

National Stability

  • Participation in Intl Org

  • Regional partner in developmental activities

  • Policy of non-intervention in other state’s affairs.

  • Political Stability: Demands for secession arising from diversity of historical, ideological, cultural, political or economic interests of different gps of people..

  • Economic Strength: It is central to national Power. Nation constantly under economic pressure is vulnerable to manipulation. Adversely effects the personality of the nation state.


  • Strengthening the social fiber: Ensuring equal status for all sectors of society irrespective of caste, creed or religion.

  • Internal law and order and External Security: Building strong governmental institutions, para-mil forces, Police and Defense forces to neutralize the perceived threats both internally and externally..

  • Energy Security: Mechanism of developing and acquiring energy, storing and the means of delivery must be secured.

  • Food Security: Production, storage and acquiring additional foods and storing must be secured. Country must have sufficient in store for at least a year!

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