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LTR. ORF1. ORF2. LTR. Yeast Ty1/copia/truncated HERVs. P. Poly(A). LTR. LTR. Human Alu. Human THE1. LTR. gag. pol. env. LTR. P. ORF1. ORF2. Full-length HERVs/exogenous retrovirus. Poly(A). L1. Materials & Methods. References. Results & Discussion. Introduction. Abstract.

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Results & Discussion

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Slide1 l.jpg

LTR

ORF1

ORF2

LTR

Yeast Ty1/copia/truncated HERVs

P

Poly(A)

LTR

LTR

Human Alu

Human THE1

LTR

gag

pol

env

LTR

P

ORF1

ORF2

Full-length HERVs/exogenous retrovirus

Poly(A)

L1

Materials & Methods

References

Results & Discussion

Introduction

Abstract

The human genome is estimated to consist of approximately 8% human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related sequences. FPRL2 (fomyl peptide receptor-like 2) gene has a solitary LTR (long terminal repeat). The LTR is located between first exon and promoter region of the FPRL2 gene. The FPRL2 gene containing LTR element was expressed in various human tissues except fetal brain and cerebellum. The LTR element was detected in hominoid, Old World monkeys, and New World monkeys except for common marmoset, whereas LINE (long interspersed repetitive element) and SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) elements were detected in prosimian (ring-tailed lemur) and common marmoset. We also examined promoter activity of the LTR element in FPRL2 gene, and discussed its biological role. Taken together, the insertion of retroelements into primate genome could have different biological roles during primate evolution.aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Promoter assay

SINE

Other region

13%

16%

1

1

LINE

20%

Gene-related Sequence

HERV element

36%

8%

DNA element

3%

Pseudogene

Coding sequence

1%

3%

RNA expression

PNU

PCR, RT-PCR

BSP

Insertion of LTR54 & Two structures of LTR promoter in primates

PROMOTER ASSAY

BIOINFOMATICS

IMAGE J

PNU

Promoter Activity of LTR Element of the Human FPRL2 Gene

Hong-Seok Ha1, Jae-Won Huh1, Dae-Soo Kim2, and Heui-Soo Kim12

1Division of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University

2PBBRC, Interdisciplinary Research Program of Bioinformatics, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University

http://www.primate.or.kr

PNU

FPRL2 gene & LTR element

(A)

FPR1

FPRL1_2

FPRL2

FPRL1_1

(B)

Retroelement

PNU

FPRL2 family

genes

RNA intermediate

- LTR element

+ LTR element

Retroposon

- env

+ env

Retrotransposon

- RT

+ RT

SINE

Retrovirus

LINE

LTR: Long Terminal Repeat

LINE: Long Integrated nuclear element

SINE: Short Integrated nuclear element

HERV: Human Endogenous Retro-Virus

(A)

Luciferase assay

Bisulfite Sequencing PCR

(B)

(C)

Bioinformatics

ImageJ

  • Maksakova IA, Mager DL. Transcriptional regulation of early transposon elements, an active family of mouse long terminal repeat retrotransposons. J Viro. 2005. 79(22):13865-74.…..................

  • Yang D, Chen Q, Gertz B, He R, Phulsuksombati M, Ye RD, Oppenheim JJ. Human dendritic cells express functional formyl peptide receptor-like-2 (FPRL2) throughout maturation. J Leukoc Biol. 2002. 72:598-607.. .

Genome Information Lab

www.primate.or.kr


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