Introduction to islam
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Introduction to Islam. Misperceptions. All Muslims are Arabs 80% not Arabs Majority in Indonesia All Muslims are militant fundamentalists Most are moderate Some are secular Some are non-militant Islamic fundamentalists. Muslims by Country. Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh India Iran

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Introduction to Islam

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Introduction to islam

Introduction to Islam


Misperceptions

Misperceptions

  • All Muslims are Arabs

    • 80% not Arabs

    • Majority in Indonesia

  • All Muslims are militant fundamentalists

    • Most are moderate

    • Some are secular

    • Some are non-militant Islamic fundamentalists


Muslims by country

Muslims by Country

  • Indonesia

  • Pakistan

  • Bangladesh

  • India

  • Iran

  • Turkey

  • Egypt

  • Nigeria

  • Algeria

  • China

  • Morocco

  • Iraq

182.2 m

136.9 m

115.0 m

108.6 m

63.9 m

61.0 m

51.6 m

40.2 m

29.1 m

29.1 m

29.1 m

21.4 m


History

History

  • Abraham, Moses, Jesus “early prophets”

  • 570: Birth of Muhammad

  • 610: Angel Gabriel reveals Qur'an (Koran) to Muhammad

  • 622: Flight from Mecca to Medina

  • 633: Death of Mohammed Sunni / Shi’a split

  • 750: Islam spread to Spain & China

  • 8th – 13th C: Golden Age of Islam

  • 1095-1250: The Crusades

  • 1299-1923: Ottoman Empire

  • 19th-20th C: Colonialization


Five pillars of faith sunni

Five Pillars of Faith (Sunni)

1.Shahadah, the profession of faith in Allah

2.Salāt, prayer

3.Sawm, fasting

4.Zakāh, the paying of alms

5.Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca


Shahadah sunni

Shahadah (Sunni)

" There is no god but Alláh, Muhammad is the Messenger of Alláh.”


Shahadah shi a

Shahadah (Shi’a)

" There is no god but Alláh, Muhammad is the Messenger of Alláh.

Alí is the Friend of Alláh, the Successor of the Messenger of Alláh and his first Caliph."


Shi a

Shi’a

  • Imam Ali (ra), cousin of the Prophet (pbuh), husband of his daughter Fatima, father of Hassan and Hussein and the second person ever to embrace Islam.

  • The term Shia or Shi'ite derives from a shortening of Shiat Ali or partisans of Ali.

  • “Twelvers” (believe in 12 Imams)

  • After last descendant, Council of Twelve elected Imam (e.g., Ayatollah Khomeni)


Shi a sunni

Shi’a Sunni

  • Formal hierarchial clergy with “holy” Imam; “Catholic”

  • Belief in Mohammed’s descendants

  • Emphasis on suffering and martyrdom

    • Ashura commemorates Battle of Karbala, in which Hussein sacrificed self against enemy Yazid (self-flagellation)

  • No formal clergy (has scholars and jurists); “Protestant”

  • Caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib)

  • Different interpretations ofQur’an and hadith


Shi a sunni1

Shi’a Sunni

  • Divorce and inheritance laws more favorable to women

  • Recognize “temporary” marriages

  • Shrines to saints

  • Generally poorer

  • No formal clergy (has scholars and jurists); “Protestant”

  • Caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib)

  • Different interpretations ofQur’an and hadith


Shi a sunni populations

Shi’a – Sunni Populations


Shi a roots of religion us l al d n

Shi’a: Roots of Religion (Usūl al-Dīn)

  • Tawhīd (Oneness): The Oneness of God

  • Adalah (Justice): The Justice of God

  • Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion--that is, a perfect system of how to live in "peace“ ("submission to God")

  • Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind—a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise.

  • Qiyamah (The Day of Judgment): God will raise mankind for Judgment


Shi a branches of religion fur al d n

Shi’a: Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn)

  • Shahadah (Declaration) – the declaration that there is none worthy of worship except God (Allah) and that Muhammad is His messenger.

  • Salat—called "Namaaz" in Persian (Prayer) – performing the five daily prayers

  • Sawm—called "Roozeh" in Persian (Fast) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan

  • Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca.

  • Zakat (Poor-rate) – paying the poor-tax

  • Khums (One-fifth) – paying tax

  • Jihad (Struggle) – struggling to please God. The greater, or internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life.

  • Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf – commanding what is good

  • Nahi-Anil-Munkar – forbidding what is evil

  • Tawalla – loving the Ahlul Bayt and their followers

  • Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt


The haaj

The Haaj

  • Vedic


Shar ia

Shar’ia

  • Muslim law system partially based upon Qu’ran (also Sunna, traditional laws and Imams)

  • Interpreted differently by different Muslim cultures

  • It denotes an Islamic path of life that is more than a system of criminal justice

  • Religious observance plus criminal law, family, marriage, inheritance, etc.

  • Interpreted differently by local cultures


Shar ia1

Shar’ia

  • All possible actions of a Muslim are divided (in principle) into five categories:

    • Obligatory

    • Meritorious

    • Permissible

    • Reprehensible

    • Forbidden


Shar ia2

Shar’ia

How Can I Become Acquainted to the Woman I am Proposing to?

Question:When I go to propose to a young woman, how may I speak to her, in order to know her beliefs, her piety, her character and her manners? And is it permissible for me to sit with her?

Answer:It is permissible for the suitor to look at the woman to whom he is proposing, but without being alone with her, because the Sunnah has been authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu alahi wasalam) to that effect. He may ask her and her guardian about what is important to him regarding matters related to marriage.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz Fatawa Islamiyyah, Darussalam, volume 5, page 209


Shar ia3

Shar’ia

The Ruling on Selling Video Tapes

Question:What is the ruling on selling video tapes, which the least of what they contain is women appearing unveiled and performances of stories of love and passion? Is the money of the merchant (who sells these tapes) forbidden? What must he do? And how can he get rid of these tapes and equipment? May Allaah reward you with good.

Answer:It is forbidden to sell these tapes, purchase them, listen to what is on them and look at them, because they call to Fitnah (evil temptation, trials) and corruption. It is obligatory to destroy them and rebuke whoever deals with them in order to shutdown this corrupt material and protect the Muslims from causes of Fitnah. And Allaah is the Giver of success.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz Fatawa Islamiyah vol.4 p.427 DARUSSALAM


Shar ia4

Shar’ia

A man working in a girls' school

Question:What is the ruling of Islaam upon a male teacher working in a girls’ secondary school?

Answer:This is not permissible, due to the exposure to fitnah (trials) contained in this. And with Allaah is the tawfeeq. And may peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and his Companions.


Shar ia5

Shar’ia

Shaking Hands with the Unbelievers

Question:May Allaah reward you, if the unbelievers extend their hands to shake hands, should one refuse [to shake hands]?

Answer:If they salaam (greet) you and extend their hands to you, then shake their hands there is no problem with it. As for you [Muslim] initiating the salaam (greeting) and the shaking of the hands then this is not allowed.

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan Silsilatu sharhir-Rasail, p241. Translated by Abu 'Abdillaah al-Kashmiri


Shar ia6

Shar’ia

Women Dancing At Weddings

Question:What is the ruling of women dancing amongst themselves during a wedding or other than that? May Allaah reward you.

Answer:There is no harm in the dancing of women on the occasion of marriage and the beating of a simple drum) along with some singing of virtuous songs (not containing sinful speech) - because this is from the announcement of the marriage that has been commanded by the sharee'ah. However with the condition that this is done in the company of women only, with voices that are not raised so that they pass outside of the venue, and with the condition that there is complete seclusion and screening. Also that the awrah (the areas of the body that should be concealed) are not revealed whilst dancing, such as her legs, or her arms or her upper arms - and that which is shown from these is in accordance with the customs/habits of the Muslim women in the presence of (other) women.


Shar ia the extreme

Shar’ia: The Extreme

Palestinian Honor Killings

If a woman brings shame to the family--through allegations of premarital or extramarital sex, by refusing an arranged marriage, or attempting to obtain a divorce--her male relatives are bound by duty and culture to murder her.   "Honor is everything," says Ahmed, a 52-year-old Palestinian Muslim. "If a person loses his honor, he becomes like an animal."


Shar ia the extreme1

Shar’ia: The Extreme

TEHRAN (Reuters) - An Iranian man cut off his seven- year-old daughter's head after suspecting she had been raped by her uncle, the Jomhuri-ye Eslami newspaper said on Sunday. "The motive behind the killing was to defend my honor, fame, and dignity," the paper quoted the father as saying.


Shar ia the extreme2

Shar’ia: The Extreme

Iranian actress escapes lashing

Iran spares actress from flogging for kissing man on the forehead. A well-known Iranian actress has been given a suspended sentence of 74 lashes for kissing a man during an awards ceremony.Gohar Kheirandish landed in court after kissing director Ali Zamani on the forehead.


Shar ia the extreme3

Shar’ia: The Extreme

  • Adultery = death

  • Theft = amputation

  • No pork, dog, or cat

  • Men can divorce at will (even by text-messaging!)

  • Women must be covered

  • Beating wife is permissible

  • Death penalty for homosexuals

  • No criticism of Prophet

  • Conversion to another religion punishable by death


Sunni law

Sunni Law

Four schools (madhabs):

General Principles:

  • Hanafi (founded by Abu Hanifa)

  • Maliki (founded by Malik)

    Evidence:

  • Shafi'i (founded by Shafi'i)

  • Hanbali (founded by Ahmad bin Hanbal)


Islam other religions

Islam & Other Religions

  • Islam the sole universal truth

  • Rooted in but supplants Judeo-Christianity

  • Views all others as infidels

  • Duty to spread Prophet’s message to all mankind

  • Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Judaism never attempted to become world religions or convert others


View of christianity

View of Christianity

  • Jesus was an “early” prophet

  • Trinity a blasphemy

  • God unknowable, cannot be “humanized”

  • Bible is not a direct revelation

    • Written centuries later

    • Qur’an direct “recording”

  • Political hierarchy intervenes between man and God

    • Islam has no church or priests


The concept of nation

The Concept of Nation

  • A Western idea

  • Middle-Eastern nations, such as Lebanon and Jordan, were artificial imperial creations

  • Vatan, meaning “country,” did not appear until late 18th C

  • Call to war or martyrdom in the cause of the true faith, rarely “country”

  • Ottoman Empire the exception

  • Turkey most nationalistic

  • Egypt only country with a national identity from antiquity to modern age


Church and state

“Church” and State

  • Separation of the two is a Western concept

  • One and the same

  • The law is God’s law (there is no church to be separated)

  • Today, only two states with written constitutions do not mention Islam as the foundation of law:

    • Turkey & Lebanon


From theocracies to democracies

From Theocracies to Democracies

  • Islamic Republics of Iran & Afghanistan

  • Nigeria & Somalia: Regional shari’a law

  • Saudia Arabia: dual legal system

  • Morocco: Monarchy based on Islamic law & French/Spanish civil law system

  • Kuwait: Muslim law-personal matters

  • Syria (laws inspired by shari’a)

  • Egypt: banned religious parties

  • Turkey: Republican Parliamentary Democracy (shari’a banned)

  • Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh: secular constitutions and laws


Islamic fundamentalists extremists

Islamic Fundamentalists (Extremists)

  • Muslim Brotherhood

    • 1928: Restore holy law in Egypt; fight own government to protest colonialization and Westernization

    • 1936: Palestine cause (vs. UK)

    • 1948: Assassinated Egypt PM

    • 1952: Suez canal crisis

  • 1919: Basmachi (anti-Soviet)

  • 1940s-50s: Devotees of Islam

  • 1960s – today: Fatah (PLO)


Islamic fundamentalists today

Islamic Fundamentalists: Today

  • PLO (secular)

  • Palestinian Hamas (Sunni)

  • Lebanese Hizb Allah (Hezbollah) (Party of God) (Shi’a)

  • Al Qaeda (Sunni)


Islamic fundamentalists today1

Islamic Fundamentalists: Today

  • “A lot of these organizations started as community-based self-help projects. If you look at the Muslim Brotherhood, what did they do? Even today, it runs medical clinics, job training programs, subsidizes cheap food, collects garbage. It does things the government doesn’t. Religious groups are very popular because they are meeting the needs. They go into politics. They meet violent resistance, and they react violently.”

    • Lawrence Davidson, West Chester University, author of the book Islamic Fundamentalism.


Islamic fundamentalists today2

Islamic Fundamentalists: Today

  • “These movements are often rooted in legitimate grievances voiced by underrepresented and oppressed segments of the population, particularly the poor. And the U.S. is increasingly identified with the political, social and economic forces that are responsible for their misery.”

    • Stephen Zunes, San Francisco University, author of Tinderbox: U.S. Middle East Policy and the Roots of Terrorism.


Fundamentalists misunderstood

Fundamentalists: Misunderstood?

  • National Catholic Reporter (10/8/04):

    • “Islamic revival simply means becoming a more religiously observant Muslim”

    • “it’s also about creating a more just, moral, Islam-based society.”

    • “most Muslims are wary of Islam as a political movement, oppose Islam’s manipulation for violent or revolutionary ends, and don’t have confidence in extreme Islamic movements.


Goal of islamism

Goal of Islamism

  • “Islamism represents for many Muslims a last-ditch effort to better their situation after decades of living in impoverished states that have experimented with socialism, Arab nationalism, military dictatorships and monarchies -- with little discernible improvement in living standards for the vast majority of their populations.”

    • National Catholic Reporter (10/8/04)


Goal of islamism1

Goal of Islamism

  • Islamism is “an alternative to the secular nation-state, to a Western, non-indigenous, non-Islamic form of social organization and political process .”

    • National Catholic Reporter (10/8/04)


Us policy

US Policy?

  • The hard-line rhetoric adopted by the Bush administration--references to the “axis of evil” and “you’re either with us or against us”--aggravates divisions between the Muslim world and the West and glosses over the real frictions that exist within the Islamic world itself. At the same time, continuing U.S. support for Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip confirms many Muslims’ belief that the United States is hostile to their interests and hypocritical in its support for democracy.

    • Martin Marty, University of Chicago co-editor of The Fundamentalism Project


Integration and understanding

Integration and Understanding

  • “The corrective to militant Islamism is to integrate mainstream Islamists [fundamentalists] into the political process of their respective countries.”

    • Fawaz Gerges, Sarah Lawrence College, author of Jihadists: Unholy Warriors.


The root problem

The Root Problem?

  • The inability of the West to view Islam as Islam

  • Imposition of Western perspective on Islamic world

  • And vice versa?


What is the real face of islam

What is the real face of Islam?


Battle of metanarratives

Battle of Metanarratives?

VS.


Introduction to islam

Iran

  • Persian

  • Islamic Republic of Iran

  • Shi'a Islam is the official state religion

  • 1979: Monarchy overthrown and theocracy established

  • Growing diverse economy

  • Reform movement by moderates and liberals squelched in 2000


Introduction to islam

Iran

  • All media in Iran is controlled directly or indirectly by the state, and must be approved by the Ministry of Islamic Guidance before it can be released to the public.

  • The state also actively monitors the Internet, which has become enormously popular among the Iranian youth. Iran is now the world's fourth largest country of bloggers.

  • Ban on satellite dishes

  • “Restless youth who want moderation and play rock in garages.”

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President


Iranian cinema

Iranian Cinema

  • "We believe that the American cinema system is devoid of all culture and art and is only used as a device.“

  • "Supervision of content from films, TV series and their voice-overs is emphasized in order to support spiritual cinema and to eliminate triteness and violence."

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President


Iranian cinema1

Iranian Cinema

  • Complete censorship:

    • No alcohol

    • No violence

    • No touching (no sex)

    • Women must wear chadors, even indoors

    • Nothing that promotes secularism, feminism, capitalism

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President


Iranian cinema2

Iranian Cinema

  • “Centered in Tehran, many movie-makers have produced more inward looking existential films—a trend that has led to a serious of critically admired films and festival winners in recent years, such as Abbas Kiarostami’s film 10.”

    DePardes Entertainment http://www.despardes.com/pk/ent/dec05/6.html


Abbas kiarostami

Abbas Kiarostami


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