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PEACEKEEPING, R2P AND CIVILIAN PROTECTION: ‘Third Pillar Contributions’. The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS). Issues of R2P Implementation.

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PEACEKEEPING, R2P AND CIVILIAN PROTECTION:‘Third Pillar Contributions’

The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • As the norm of Responsibility to Protect is more broadly recognized as integral to the mission of the international community, the focus on R2P is shifting from protecting the norm to building robust tools of implementation.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • Each of the three R2P “pillars” requires attention to the tools by which we act to prevent atrocity crimes or stop the violence quickly once it begins.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • Too often, ‘third pillar’ proposals exist in isolation from the other pillars focused on prevention and capacity building. Many states are concerned about a ‘rush to intervention’ and are demanding full attention to the UN’s preventive/early warning tool kit.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • States also want assurances that proposals to upgrade our tool kit on atrocity crimes reflect the security needs and aspirations of those regions most likely to be impacted by their implementation.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • The UN is also investing significant energy in early warning mechanisms, largely through the new ‘joint office’ on Genocide Prevention and Responsibility to Protect.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • We and other partner organizations within the International Coalition for R2P continually advocate for transparent mechanisms to more effectively track ‘early warning’ findings through the UN system.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • We also contribute research and advocacy on ‘genocide ideology laws’ – helping to ensure that any such laws are narrowly drafted, mandate proportionate punishments, and include provisions for independent assessments of wrongdoing.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • Mostly, we seek to ensure that the preventive and capacity provisions of R2P are honored fully and that any ‘third pillar’ response clearly emerges from a preventive framework.


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Issues of R2P Implementation

  • However, no matter how robust our preventive/early warning framework, there are times when more vigorous, rapid responses to atrocity crimes are needed, responses which are difficult for the UN to manage.


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

Given this, more and more policymakers and diplomats believe that the UN must develop standing, complementary, service-integrated peacekeeping capacities, consisting of individually-recruited UN employees who can be deployed rapidly and under ‘last-resort,’ limited mandates.


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

UNEPS represents a cost-effective complement to what are too often expensive, late-arriving peacekeeping operations that inadequately fulfill our responsibility to protect civilians and pose needless risks for peacekeepers.


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

The development of UNEPS presupposes core concerns shared by several of our global R2P/civilian protection partners, including what we see as threats to the legitimacy of the UN by virtue of its inability to respond effectively to the crises for which it is held accountable by the global public.


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

Despite ongoing political obstacles, semi-autonomous, limited-mandate capacities such as UNEPS have been cautiously endorsed by a number of states from diverse global regions -- but only under conditions of strict control.


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

While capacities such as UNEPS involve carefully trained military troops, we seek primarily to develop tools that can prevent violence before it starts as well as address violent outbreaks in their earliest stages.


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

UNEPS faces many of the political obstacles encountered by R2P advocates, including concerns about:

The ongoing lack of effectiveness and accountability within the Security Council

Creating a new rationale for ‘humanitarian intervention’ by the major powers

Compromising state sovereignty


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

We believe that UNEPS and related capacities represent a viable option for the UN as it seeks to improve preventive mechanisms, ensure effective gender and service integrated deployments, and decrease response time when and only when robust diplomatic efforts fail to stem the violence.


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The Rationale for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS)

Despite valiant efforts by DPKO officials and military advisors, the troop-contributing-country model cannot be made fully successful unless supplemented by limited-mandate, UN-based, rapid-response capacities and related civilian peacekeeping tools.


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For More Information

The Project for a UN Emergency Peace

Service

c/o Global Action to Prevent War

866 UN Plaza, Suite 4050

New York, NY 10017

www.globalactionpw.org


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