DRIVER FITNESS
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DRIVER FITNESS. DRIVING SANE, SAFE, AND SOBER!. Athletes prepare for competition. Leaders prepare for speeches. Teachers prepare their lessons. Pilots prepare to fly. Why don't drivers prepare to DRIVE?. EMOTIONS.

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Driver fitness

DRIVER FITNESS

DRIVING SANE, SAFE, AND SOBER!


Driver fitness

  • Athletes prepare for competition.

  • Leaders prepare for speeches.

  • Teachers prepare their lessons.

  • Pilots prepare to fly.

Why don't drivers prepare to DRIVE?


Driver fitness

EMOTIONS

  • Your emotional state affects the way you drive and the way you respond to other drivers.


Driver fitness

HEALTH

  • Your health affects the way you drive also!


Driver fitness

ATTITUDE

  • Your attitude may be the most important thing of all; in driving and all parts of your life!


Driver fitness

DRUGS: To use or not to use?

Why do you think Idaho has a Zero Tolerance Law for persons under age 21?

Why do some people choose not to use alcohol or other drugs?


Your choices and responsibilities

Your Choices and Responsibilities

  • List some short-term and long-term rewards.

  • List some short-term and long-term consequences.

  • Is alcohol and other drug use short-term or long term reward?

  • Are consequences of alcohol use short-term or long-term?

  • Easiest way to avoid the consequences is?


Bac factors

BAC Factors

8 oz

  • Weight

  • Time Spent Drinking

  • Gender

  • Food

  • Alcohol Content

  • Size of Drink

0.04

0.08

220 lbs

110 lbs


Are they the same

Are They The Same?

  • Beer

  • Whiskey

  • Wine

  • Cooler

  • Margarita


How much light beer male

How Much Light Beer (Male)

Weight BAC Ounces of BAC Ounces ofBAC Ounces of

Male Light Beer Light Beer Light Beer

2000.0322 oz.0.0537 oz.0.0752 oz.

1900.0321 oz.0.0534 oz.0.0750 oz.

1800.0320 oz.0.0533 oz.0.0746 oz.

1700.0319 oz.0.0532 oz.0.0744 oz.

1600.0318 oz.0.0530 oz.0.0741 oz.

1500.0317 oz.0.0529 oz.0.0739 oz.

1400.0316 oz.0.0527 oz.0.0737 oz.

1300.0315 oz.0.0525 oz.0.0734 oz.

1200.0314 oz.0.0522 oz.0.0732 oz.

1100.0313 oz.0.0521 oz.0.0729 oz.

1000.0311 oz.0.0520 oz.0.0728 oz.

900.0310 oz.0.0518 oz.0.0726 oz.

800.03 8 oz.0.0517 oz.0.0723 oz.

70 0.03 6 oz.0.0515 oz.0.0719 oz.

55 0.03 4 oz.0.0512 oz.0.0717 oz.

Basic Assumption: 12 oz of Light Beer = 1 oz of 86 proof liquor


How much light beer female

How Much Light Beer (Female)

Weight BAC Ounces of BAC Ounces ofBAC Ounces of

Female Light Beer Light Beer Light Beer

2550.0322 oz.0.0537 oz.0.0752 oz.

2300.0321 oz.0.0534 oz.0.0750 oz.

2200.0320 oz.0.0533 oz.0.0746 oz.

2100.0319 oz.0.0532 oz.0.0744 oz.

2000.0318 oz.0.0530 oz.0.0741 oz.

1950.0317 oz.0.0529 oz.0.0739 oz.

1800.0316 oz.0.0527 oz.0.0737 oz.

1700.0315 oz.0.0525 oz.0.0734 oz.

1600.0314 oz.0.0522 oz.0.0732 oz.

1500.0313 oz.0.0521 oz.0.0729 oz.

1300.0311 oz.0.0520 oz.0.0728 oz.

1200.0310 oz.0.0518 oz.0.0726 oz.

1100.03 8 oz.0.0517 oz.0.0723 oz.

900.03 6 oz.0.0515 oz.0.0719 oz.

800.03 4 oz.0.0512 oz.0.0717 oz.

Basic Assumption: 12 oz of Light Beer = 1 oz of 86 proof liquor


Elimination of alcohol

Elimination of Alcohol

}

PROCESS

TIME FACTORS

Breath

Urine

Sweat

10%

LIVER 90%

About 0.015 BAC Reduction Per Hour

Therefore:BAC of 0.05 = 3.5 hours for removal

BAC of 0.07 = 5.0 hours for removal

BAC of 0.10 = 7.0 hours for removal

BAC of 0.15 = 10.0 hours for removal

Assumption: Adult male 150-180 lbs. with normal liver function


Elimination rate

Elimination Rate

BAC

Stops Drinking @ 12:30am

.16=Peak @ 1:00

INTOXICATED LEGALLY (.08) @ 6:00AM

IMPAIRED (.05) @ 9:30AM

HRS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

ABSORPTION

ELIMINATION


Alcohol affects the body

Alcohol Affects the Body

Liver

Heart

Sexuality

Sleep

Stomach

Brain


Alcohol affects people differently

Alcohol Affects People Differently

Tolerance

Personality

Mood

Experience

Fatigue

Medication

Weight

Age


Psychological effects of alcohol use

Psychological Effects of Alcohol Use

  • Aggression

  • Tolerance

  • Attention

  • Memory

  • Emotions


Alcohol and space management

Alcohol and Space Management

After drinking, the driver may tend to stare at the center line.


Impaired vision

Impaired Vision

  • Side Vision

  • Color Distinction (street lights)

  • Eye Focus

  • Double Vision

  • Distance Judgment


Risk taking problem

Risk-Taking Problem

The impaired brain is unable to make good judgments or smart decisions.


Chance of death

Chance of Death

for ages 16-19 by BAC levels

BAC Increased Risk of Death

.015 - .049 .05 - .079

.08 - .099 .10 - .149 .15 and greater

2.5 9 40 90 420

STUDY INCLUDES COMPARISON OF SINGLE VEHICLE COLLISIONS IN AGE GROUP


Drugs and driving

Drugs and Driving

  • Perception

  • Judgment

  • Coordination

  • Vision

  • Mood


Marijuana and driving

Marijuana and Driving

  • Takes about 300 µg/kg to achieve a high

  • Effects at 300 µg/kg:

    • Tracking

    • Following Distance

    • Vigilance

    • Divided Attention


Other types of drugs and driving

Other Types of Drugs and Driving

These can all affect driving behaviors and abilities

Over the Counter Medications

Prescription Medications

  • Tranquilizers

  • Stimulants

  • Narcotics


Driver fitness

Driving While “Fatigued”

The Problem:

  • *64% of Americans get less than 8 hours of sleep each night.

  • *30% of Americans get less than 6 hours of sleep each night.

  • *Drowsiness causes an estimated 100,000 police-reported crashes in America each year, resulting in 76,000 injuries and 1,500 deaths.

  • *Some studies have shown that up to 20% of U.S. crashes are sleep-related; 1 in 5 crashes! If this is true - it’s an epidemic.

  • 23% of those in sleep-related crashes reported not feeling tired at all before the crash! You can’t rely on “feeling” tired as your warning.

*AAAfoundation.org


Driver fitness

What is FATIGUE?

  • A Body Response

  • Follows a Period of:

    • Extended mental activity

    • Extended physical activity

  • May also be caused by:

    • A heavy meal

    • A period of time after having too much caffeine (regular use can result in chronic adrenal exhaustion)

    • Disruption of the natural sleep cycle

  • Characterized by:

    • Reduced capacity to perform tasks

    • Reduced abilities to concentrate


Driver fitness

Who is at Risk?

  • Those who are sleep-deprived

  • Those who drive during high-risk times of day or night

  • Those who drive during high-risk or high-stress conditions

  • Those who consume alcohol or use medications or drugs that interfere with ability to maintain alertness


Tired vs drunk

Tired vs. Drunk

  • Studies show that tired drivers are just as (or more) dangerous than drug or alcohol-impaired drivers on the road!

  • How many people in this room are:

    • drunk right now?

    • High on drugs?

    • Distracted?

  • How many of you are tired?

  • It is similar out on our roads. More people are tired than otherwise impaired or distracted.


Driver fitness

Symptoms of Fatigue

  • Inability to keep fixed attention

  • Impaired memory

  • Slower reaction time

  • Difficulty / slowness in reasoning

  • Weakness / tired muscles

Do we need any of these things to drive safely?


Driver fitness

It’s best to never drive tired….

But what if you have to?


Driver fitness

Strategies for Driving While Fatigued

  • Avoid long drives

  • Avoid leaning forward

  • Keep your eyes moving

  • Let in fresh air

  • Change drivers regularly

  • Adjust in-car temperature (not too hot or cold)

  • Drink some caffeine

  • Take breaks to get out and stretch


Driver fitness

Bottom Lines

Drowsy driving is dangerous to yourself and others on the road.

Drowsy driving is similar to driving drunk or drugged.

Drowsy driving must become as socially unacceptable as drunk driving.

Support one another by promoting a good night’s sleep before a long drive, sharing driving duties if allowed, and being a good passenger and keeping the driver aware and awake.


Driver fitness

Aggressive Driving

SpeedingRunning signs or lightsTailgatingWeaving in and out of trafficFailing to yield the right of wayCutting off other driversYelling or honking your horn at other drivers


Driver fitness

Road Rage

When aggressive driving becomes violent it is road rage

  • Pursuing another vehicle in a chase

  • Leaving your car to confront another driver

  • Intentionally bumping or ramming another car.

  • Physically assaulting another driver

  • Using a car as a weapon

  • Displaying a weapon

  • Firing a gun or using another weapon


Driver fitness

Formula for Road Rage

Increased cultural disrespect and

selfishness

+

More Cars

Less Space

More Driver Interactions

=

Road Rage!


Driver fitness

At least 1,500 Americans are

killed or seriously

injured each year as a result

of road rage incidents


Driver fitness

Self-Imposed Anxieties

  • “I’m going to be late if I don’t hurry up.”

  • “Why are these cars going so slow?”

  • “We’ll never make it.”

  • “If only I had gone a little faster, I could’ve made it.”

  • “Oh no! Red light!”


Driver fitness

Anger Containment Techniques

  • Don’t respond

  • Don’t engage

  • Don’t up the ante

  • Swallow your pride

  • Choose the road “less traveled”

  • What is there to prove, really?


Dealing with anger

Dealing with Anger

How will you respond?


Driver fitness

Reducing Driver Distractions

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Driver distractions

Driver Distractions

  • Each year, more than 40,000 people are killed in motor vehicle crashes and over three million are injured!

  • Research indicates that driver distraction is a contributing factor in more than 25% of all crashes

Source: AAA Foundation Research


Driver distractions outside the vehicle

DRIVER DISTRACTIONS- Outside the Vehicle

  • Bright vehicle lights

  • Billboards and signs

  • Driver being chased by police

  • Officer directing traffic

  • Animal in roadway (deer, dog, elk, etc. )

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Driver distractions outside the vehicle1

DRIVER DISTRACTIONS- Outside the Vehicle

  • Sunrise, sunset

  • People in roadway (child, basketball game, crowd, etc)

  • Objects in the roadway (broken glass, garbage can, etc. holes)

  • Crash scene

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Driver distractions inside the vehicle

DRIVER DISTRACTIONS- Inside the Vehicle

  • Eating or drinking

  • Other occupants in the vehicle

  • Moving object in vehicle

  • All actions involved with smoking can be a distraction

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Driver distractions inside the vehicle1

DRIVER DISTRACTIONS- Inside the Vehicle

  • Dialing, talking, texting or looking up information on a cell phone

  • Adjusting radio, cassette, or CD

  • Using device/object in the vehicle

  • Using vehicle devices or controls

  • Picking up a dropped object

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Problems with driver distractions are not new

Problems with Driver Distractions are not New

  • Some of the “old” distractions that continue to cause problems are children and babies, cigarettes, drinks, radios and audio players, and insects or bugs that find their way into the vehicle.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Problems with driver distractions are not new1

Problems with Driver Distractions are not New

  • Newer” distractions include GPS navigation systems, digital music, On-Star roadside assistance, and cell phones.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


New issue or old issue

New Issue or Old Issue?

  • Driver Distractions from 1913-2010

1913

1930

1954

1983

2000

2010

Radios

Mobile

Phones

Email,

Internet,

texting,

etc.

Windshield Wipers

Drive-Up

Windows

MP3 and DVD players


Driver age groups distractions

Driver Age Groups Distractions

  • Drivers under age 20 are more likely than older drivers to be identified as distracted at the time of their crash.

  • 20-29 year-olds use a cell phone frequently.

  • 30-49 year-olds eat and drink more often in the car.

  • 50 plus drivers are more distracted by outside objects and events.

Photos courtesy of the AAA Foundation


When distractions lead to collisions

When Distractions Lead to Collisions

  • Distractions and inattention cause 68% of rear-end crashes.

  • Other typical crashes include backing up, making lane changes, and merging.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


High risk driving distractions

High Risk Driving Distractions

  • Reading and writing.

  • Manipulating vehicle controls for extended periods of time.

  • Focusing on an external distraction.

  • Having emotionally charged discussion with passengers.

  • Reaching for objects inside the vehicle.

  • Dialing a cell phone.

  • Carrying on a cell phone conversation.

  • Performing grooming activities when the vehicle is moving.

  • Texting


When distractions lead to collisions1

When Distractions Lead to Collisions

High-risk drivers tend to have higher levels of no hands on the steering wheel, their eyes are directed inside rather than outside the vehicle, and their vehicles wander in the travel lane or cross into another travel lane.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Distractions are affecting driver laws

Distractions are Affecting Driver Laws

Many states are passing, or looking into passing, laws regarding driver distractions.


Distractions are affecting driver laws1

Distractions are Affecting Driver Laws

Much of this attention stems from the enormous increase in cell phone use by drivers and the prospect of similar growth in other in-vehicle technologies.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


New vehicle technology helpful or harmful

New Vehicle Technology ─ Helpful or Harmful?

  • Drivers must use new technology responsibly while driving.

  • Electronic devices can enhance safety in many ways.

  • When stuck in traffic, using a mobile phone to say you'll be late can reduce stress and make drivers less inclined to drive aggressively.

  • Any activity that takes your attention from the road makes the driving task more dangerous!

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


New vehicle technology helpful or harmful1

New Vehicle Technology- Helpful or Harmful?

  • Vehicle navigation systems help drivers locate addresses and guide them to their destination.

  • Wireless Internet and messaging are becoming the norm on my phones and in many new vehicles.

  • In-vehicle DVD movie players are popular for passengers to pass time when going on a lengthy trip.

  • Are movies a distraction for drivers?

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Consequences of distracted driving

Consequences of Distracted Driving

  • Distracted driving is one of the leading causes of collisions.

  • It forces drivers to make sudden decisions.

  • Drivers can easily be involved in a collision.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Consequences of distracted driving1

Consequences of Distracted Driving

  • Each year, more than 40,000 people are killed in motor vehicle crashes and over three million are injured.

  • Distracted driving contributes to over 1,500,000 collisions each year.

  • That’s 4,300 collisions each day

  • 179 Collisions every hour.


Divided attention tasks

Divided Attention Tasks

Divided attention can lead to missed brake lights, missed traffic sign or signal, missed animal or pedestrian, or a drift out of the lane position.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Divided attention tasks1

Divided Attention Tasks

  • A driver can learn to operate the vehicle with simple eye, hand, and feet coordination.

  • However, the driving task is a mental process that needs constant attention to the path of travel in order to keep the vehicle within the lane space and adjust to any restrictions in the path of travel.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Divided attention tasks2

Divided Attention Tasks

  • It is important to recognize that taking attention from the path of travel means the vehicle is moving on the roadway without the driver seeing where the vehicle is going or mentally processing any new information.

Source: Unknown


Divided attention tasks3

Divided Attention Tasks

  • It is critical never to look away from the path of travel for more than ½ second at a time without moving visual and mental attention back to the path of travel.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Learning how to handle distractions

Learning how to Handle Distractions

  • Learning to drive involves learning how to develop divided attention to different tasks.

  • Know how to operate the vehicle controls.

  • Be able to keep the vehicle on the road.

  • Be able to keep the vehicle in the lane.

  • Be able to place the vehicle in different lane positions.

  • Be able to avoid risk.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation

Pay attention!


Cell phone strategies

Cell Phone Strategies

  • A "hands-free" apparatus may be helpful, but they can't prevent drivers from becoming involved in a conversation and losing concentration.

  • If you must use a cell phone, especially to text, safely pull over to the side of the road.

  • If drivers must respond to an emergency while driving, use speed dial features and a hands-free kit.

  • Alert the caller that you are on the road.

  • Keep calls as brief as possible .


Idaho s texting and driving law

Idaho’s Texting and Driving Law

  • Starting July 1, 2012, no driver in the state of Idaho can text while driving.


But what is texting

But What is “Texting?”

  • The definition of texting is: “reviewing, manually preparing, or transmitting written communication by a handheld wireless device.”


What about

What About….?

  • Calling someone?

    • Dialing a number or answering a call is fine.

    • Scrolling through an address book is not.

  • Hands-free or voice activated?

    • Both are fine!

  • Using a GPS device or GPS app?

    • No, it is “reviewing written communication.”

    • Do all mapping and trip planning before driving or when stopped.


Driver fitness

Or…?

  • Just reading a text message?

    • Definitely not legal or safe. No.

  • Facebook posts or messages?

    • No. They are as dangerous as text messages.

  • Looking up the time a movie starts?

    • No. That is reviewing written communication.

  • Activating or deactivating a phone feature or function?

    • Yes. This is legal.


Driver fitness

So a cell phone can pretty much only be used as a phone while driving?

YES!


Even better

Even BETTER…


Children and driving

Children and Driving

  • Make sure children are comfortable and properly buckled up.

  • To keep children from distracting the driver, provide them with safe items they may need for the road trip.


Food and driving

Food and Driving

  • Give yourself a break from the traffic and enjoy your refreshments outside the car.

  • Someone choking on food or spilling liquid in the vehicle can take the driver’s attention off the road.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Other strategies for reducing risk

Other Strategies for Reducing Risk

  • Avoid reading while driving.

  • Finish grooming before driving.

  • Don't rely on the time in your vehicle to take care of personal routine such as applying make-up, combing hair or shaving.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

As a new driver, keep 100 percent of your attention on driving until you get better at doing multiple things at once in the car.

Photo courtesy of the AAA Foundation


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