SLAVERY. The Beginnings…. Household slaves had long been a part of world of Mediterranean Europe. War captives would be sold to wealthy families and put to work as servants. Sugar and Slavery. Columbus brought sugar cane and soon after sugar plantations were is full operation.
Europeans tried to force Native Americans to work on their plantations. They ran into the following problems:
1. subject to fall ill from disease.
2. could easily run away.
3. could blend in with former
*During the 1660’s the labor system in the colonies began to change as indenturedservants began to leave the plantations.
*There was so much land in the Americas that it was easy for a servant to leave once they worked off their debt.
It represents an ancestral figure emerging from the underground railroad. The tracks are connected to him because the experience is a part of who we are...part of our roots. The light in the upper right represents the north star...or direction towards freedom.
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*With the decline of Native American Slave labor and increase in plantations the demand for African Slave Labor increased rapidly.
African Empire Colonial
It is estimated by scholars that between 10 and 12 million slaves were transported on slave ships during the four centuries of the slave trades. About 76% arrived between 1701-1810.
The Triangular Trade was between Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
The trip from West Africa to the Americas, the “Middle Passage”, took an average of 62 days.
The ships they traveled on were narrow and the typical space between decks was 4 to 5 feet.
According to one case there was a ship where the space between decks was a mere 14 inches.
A London slave-trade monopoly was given to the Royal African Company in 1672.
Set up by the Stuart family and London merchants
Led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother.
Slaves were branded with RAC on their chests.
Between 1672 and 1689 it transported around 90,000–100,000 slaves.
The RAC Flag
COURT RULING ON AMISTAD
The Europeans shipped liquor, cotton goods, weapons, and iron to African in exchange for slaves. They viewed the slaves as a commodity.
According to sailors you could smell a slaver ship from 5 miles downwind.
A slaver was a ship used to transport slaves.
Most did not understand why they were being taken. Many believed rumors that they were captured by cannibals.
Slaves would sometimes seek freedom by trying to mutiny.
Others would jump to their death by jumping overboard.
Illness and disease ran rampant on such ships. Captains would not make money for sick slaves, but they would be reimbursed for drownings...
Africa provided many of the earliest laborers for European settlement in the Americas.
Africans possessed the skill and experience necessary to establish European-initiated agriculture, and used their cultural traditions, combined with those of Europe and Native America, to create a new American culture.
As the ship approached the shore the crew prepared the cargo for market.
The toll of the Middle Passage was hard to disguise. Slaves would often times look sickly and weak.
Others were destined to go to auction.
Sales were made by auction or by scramble.
Scramble was when all the slaves would be driven into a corral, and on cue buyers would rush in and grab who they wanted.
In 1804 the Ohio General Assembly enacted laws to regulate the lives of African-Americans in the state.
OHIO SLAVE CODES
The laws were passed to discourage the immigration of blacks to the state.
Many African Americans cannot trace their roots because their families were broken up.
Families were broke up during:
-capture of Africans in Africa
-the trip to the Americas
-the process of being sold at auction.
-the process of being sold and traded by plantation owners.
Religion became a great comfort to the slaves. In many areas, the slaves were allowed to hold their own church meetings.
Slaves sang spiritual hymns in church and while working.
Rare photo of slaves attending a church service.
A life filled with hard labor
A photograph of a kitchen slave who toiled over a hot open fire while maneuvering heavy cast iron kettles and pots.
Slave women worked in the fields, spent time spinning, sewing, weaving, preparing food, and minding children.
Having worked all day in the field the slaves line up and carry back their day’s load on their heads to be weighed.
Slaves did all kinds of things to rebel on the plantations.
When runaway slaves banded together and subsisted independently they were called Maroons. On the Caribbean islands, runaway slaves formed bands and on some islands formed armed camps. Maroon communities faced great odds to survive against white attackers, obtain food for subsistence living, and to reproduce and increase their numbers.
Seeking to separate themselves from whites, the Maroons gained in power and amid increasing hostilities, they raided and pillaged plantations and harassed planters until the planters began to fear a mass slave revolt
American slavery monument in Georgia.
Cultural Impact of Slavery