Skill development applications and cognition
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Skill Development, Applications and Cognition . Thomas G. Bowers, Ph.D. New vs. Over Learned Skills. Gazzania et al. (1994) have demonstrated different patterns of activation of the brain in novel vs. familiar skills New: Prefrontal cortex-premotor cortex-parietal region

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Skill Development, Applications and Cognition

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Skill development applications and cognition

Skill Development, Applications and Cognition

Thomas G. Bowers, Ph.D.


New vs over learned skills

New vs. Over Learned Skills

  • Gazzania et al. (1994) have demonstrated different patterns of activation of the brain in novel vs. familiar skills

    • New: Prefrontal cortex-premotor cortex-parietal region

    • Old: Hippocampus-supplemental motor cortex-occipital region

    • These results imply different processing is involved


New vs over learned skills1

New vs. Over Learned Skills

  • Skill development appears to spring a log scale, as a power law

  • Some examples:

    • Isaac Asimov‚Äôs writing skills

    • Wrote more than 500 books


Ohlsson 1992

Ohlsson, 1992

  • Production of books showed a rapid and progressive decease in time


Kohler and perkins 1975

Kohler and Perkins, 1975

  • This pattern also appears to hold for less complex motor and performance tasks

  • Time to produce a cigar rapidly decreases with experience


Time to produce a cigar

Time to Produce a Cigar

  • Again, this appears to be a power function, best fit on a log to log scale to note the linear degree of the relationship


Concept acquisition

Concept Acquisition

  • Early associative learning experiments attempted to understand conceptual processes

    • Similar

    • Dissimilar

    • Many other processes are likely


Concept development

Concept Development

  • Early research by Hull in 1920, where subjects classified Chinese alphabet symbols by the radical element (or concept), but without any awareness

  • Concluded this was due to simple associative learning


Concept development1

Concept Development

  • However, other researchers noted that subjects engaged in conscious hypothesis testing

  • Bruner et al. developed this paradigm

  • Current applications on the Category Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    • Good measures of overall cerebral integrity


Concept development2

Concept Development

  • While concept development appears to happen gradually, for each individual subject it is an all or none function

  • Nevertheless, natural concepts also appear to have fuzzy boundaries


Language acquisition

Language Acquisition

  • There has been controversy whether the acquisition of language is innate or learned

  • Major theorists are Skinner and Chomsky at opposite poles on this issue


Language acquisition1

Language Acquisition

  • Children implicitly learn complex rules of grammar, that are not even well known

    • Learning includes phonological rules and syntactical rules

    • Not to mention semantic aspects of language


Language acquisition2

Language Acquisition

  • While this is felt to be uniquely human, there appears to be many examples of language-like production in animals

  • There does appear to a critical language acquisition period, up to about age twelve for humans


Language acquisition3

Language Acquisition

  • Chomsky (1965) first proposed that there are language universals, features true of all languages

    • For example, verb-noun differences


Language acquisition4

Language Acquisition

  • Animal language development

    • Research on apes

    • Limited vocal capacity

    • Some success in learning American Sign Language (ASL)

    • Washoe


Language acquisition5

Language Acquisition

  • Permack (1970s-1980s)

  • Chimp Sarah used symbols to make up sentences

    • yes/no

    • negatives

    • class concepts - color, size, shape

    • compound sentences

    • quantifiers

    • if - then and so on


Language acquisition6

Language Acquisition

  • Some primates are now communicating with other primates with these methods


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