Skill development applications and cognition
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Skill Development, Applications and Cognition . Thomas G. Bowers, Ph.D. New vs. Over Learned Skills. Gazzania et al. (1994) have demonstrated different patterns of activation of the brain in novel vs. familiar skills New: Prefrontal cortex-premotor cortex-parietal region

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New vs over learned skills
New vs. Over Learned Skills

  • Gazzania et al. (1994) have demonstrated different patterns of activation of the brain in novel vs. familiar skills

    • New: Prefrontal cortex-premotor cortex-parietal region

    • Old: Hippocampus-supplemental motor cortex-occipital region

    • These results imply different processing is involved

New vs over learned skills1
New vs. Over Learned Skills

  • Skill development appears to spring a log scale, as a power law

  • Some examples:

    • Isaac Asimov’s writing skills

    • Wrote more than 500 books

Ohlsson 1992
Ohlsson, 1992

  • Production of books showed a rapid and progressive decease in time

Kohler and perkins 1975
Kohler and Perkins, 1975

  • This pattern also appears to hold for less complex motor and performance tasks

  • Time to produce a cigar rapidly decreases with experience

Time to produce a cigar
Time to Produce a Cigar

  • Again, this appears to be a power function, best fit on a log to log scale to note the linear degree of the relationship

Concept acquisition
Concept Acquisition

  • Early associative learning experiments attempted to understand conceptual processes

    • Similar

    • Dissimilar

    • Many other processes are likely

Concept development
Concept Development

  • Early research by Hull in 1920, where subjects classified Chinese alphabet symbols by the radical element (or concept), but without any awareness

  • Concluded this was due to simple associative learning

Concept development1
Concept Development

  • However, other researchers noted that subjects engaged in conscious hypothesis testing

  • Bruner et al. developed this paradigm

  • Current applications on the Category Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    • Good measures of overall cerebral integrity

Concept development2
Concept Development

  • While concept development appears to happen gradually, for each individual subject it is an all or none function

  • Nevertheless, natural concepts also appear to have fuzzy boundaries

Language acquisition
Language Acquisition

  • There has been controversy whether the acquisition of language is innate or learned

  • Major theorists are Skinner and Chomsky at opposite poles on this issue

Language acquisition1
Language Acquisition

  • Children implicitly learn complex rules of grammar, that are not even well known

    • Learning includes phonological rules and syntactical rules

    • Not to mention semantic aspects of language

Language acquisition2
Language Acquisition

  • While this is felt to be uniquely human, there appears to be many examples of language-like production in animals

  • There does appear to a critical language acquisition period, up to about age twelve for humans

Language acquisition3
Language Acquisition

  • Chomsky (1965) first proposed that there are language universals, features true of all languages

    • For example, verb-noun differences

Language acquisition4
Language Acquisition

  • Animal language development

    • Research on apes

    • Limited vocal capacity

    • Some success in learning American Sign Language (ASL)

    • Washoe

Language acquisition5
Language Acquisition

  • Permack (1970s-1980s)

  • Chimp Sarah used symbols to make up sentences

    • yes/no

    • negatives

    • class concepts - color, size, shape

    • compound sentences

    • quantifiers

    • if - then and so on

Language acquisition6
Language Acquisition

  • Some primates are now communicating with other primates with these methods