Respiratory system
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Respiratory System. The respiratory system Gas laws Ventilation. Respiratory System. Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood Homeostatic regulation of body pH Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances Vocalization. Principles of Bulk Flow.

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Respiratory System

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Respiratory system

Respiratory System

  • The respiratory system

  • Gas laws

  • Ventilation


Respiratory system1

Respiratory System

  • Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood

  • Homeostatic regulation of body pH

  • Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances

  • Vocalization


Principles of bulk flow

Principles of Bulk Flow

  • Flow from regions of higher to lower pressure

  • Muscular pump creates pressure gradients

  • Resistance to flow

    • Diameter of tubes


Respiratory system2

Respiratory System

Overview of external and cellular respiration

Figure 17-1


Respiratory system3

Respiratory System

  • Conducting system

  • Alveoli

  • Bones and muscle of thorax


Respiratory system4

Respiratory System

Figure 17-2a


Muscles used for ventilation

Muscles Used for Ventilation

Figure 17-2b


The respiratory system

The Respiratory System

The relationship between the pleural sac and the lung

Figure 17-3


Branching of airways

Branching of Airways

Figure 17-2e


Branching of the airways

Branching of the Airways

Figure 17-4


Alveolar structure

Alveolar Structure

Figure 17-2g


Pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary Circulation

  • Right ventricle  pulmonary trunk  lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium

PLAY

Animation: Respiratory System: Anatomy Review


Gas laws

Gas Laws


Gas laws1

Gas Laws

Pgas = Patm % of gas in atmosphere


Boyle s law

Boyle’s Law

Gases move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure

Figure 17-5


Spirometer

Spirometer

Figure 17-6


Lungs volumes and capacities

Lungs Volumes and Capacities

Figure 17-7


Conditioning

Conditioning

  • Warming air to body temperature

  • Adding water vapor

  • Filtering out foreign material


Ciliated respiratory epithelium

Ciliated Respiratory Epithelium

Figure 17-8


Air flow

Air Flow

  • Flow  P/R

  • Alveolar pressure or intrapleural pressure can be measured

  • Single respiratory cycle consists of inspiration followed by expiration


Movement of the diaphragm

Movement of the Diaphragm

Figure 17-9a


Movement of the diaphragm1

Movement of the Diaphragm

Figure 17-9b


Movement of the diaphragm2

Movement of the Diaphragm

Figure 17-9c


Movement of the rib cage during inspiration

Movement of the Rib Cage during Inspiration

Figure 17-10a


Movement of the rib cage during inspiration1

Movement of the Rib Cage during Inspiration

Figure 17-10b


Pressure changes during quiet breathing

Pressure Changes during Quiet Breathing

Figure 17-11


Pressure in the pleural cavity

Pressure in the Pleural Cavity

Figure 17-12a


Pressure in the pleural cavity1

Pressure in the Pleural Cavity

Pneumothorax results in collapsed lung that can not function normally

Figure 17-12b


Compliance and elastance

Compliance and Elastance

  • Compliance: ability to stretch

    • High compliance

      • Stretches easily

    • Low compliance

      • Requires more force

      • Restrictive lung diseases

        • Fibrotic lung diseases and inadequate surfactant production

  • Elastance: returning to its resting volume when stretching force is released


Law of laplace

Law of LaPlace

Surface tension is created by the thin fluid layer between alveolar cells and the air

Figure 17-13


Surfactant

Surfactant

  • More concentrated in smaller alveoli

  • Mixture containing proteins and phospholipids

  • Newborn respiratory distress syndrome

    • Premature babies

    • Inadequate surfactant concentrations


Air flow1

Air Flow

PLAY

Animation: Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation


Ventilation

Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Atmospheric

air

150

350

500 mL

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

Dead space

is filled with

fresh air.

2

150

mL

150

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

Only

350 mL

of fresh air

reaches

alveoli.

350

2200 mL

150

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

4

The first 150 mL

of air into the

alveoli is stale

air from the

dead space.

Inhale 500 mL

of fresh air

(tidal volume).

4

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Total pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation

Total pulmonary ventilation = ventilation rate  tidal volume

Figure 17-14


Ventilation1

Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

KEY

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, step 1


Ventilation2

Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

150

350

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

2

150

mL

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

2200 mL

KEY

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–2


Ventilation3

Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

150

350

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

2

150

mL

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–3


Ventilation4

Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Atmospheric

air

150

350

500 mL

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

Dead space

is filled with

fresh air.

2

150

mL

150

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

Only

350 mL

of fresh air

reaches

alveoli.

350

2200 mL

150

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

4

The first 150 mL

of air into the

alveoli is stale

air from the

dead space.

Inhale 500 mL

of fresh air

(tidal volume).

4

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–4


Ventilation5

Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Atmospheric

air

150

350

500 mL

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

Dead space

is filled with

fresh air.

2

150

mL

150

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

Only

350 mL

of fresh air

reaches

alveoli.

350

2200 mL

150

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

4

The first 150 mL

of air into the

alveoli is stale

air from the

dead space.

Inhale 500 mL

of fresh air

(tidal volume).

4

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–5


Ventilation6

Ventilation

Alveolar ventilation = ventilation rate  (tidal volume – dead space volume)


Ventilation7

Ventilation


Ventilation8

Ventilation


Ventilation9

Ventilation

Effects of changing alveolar ventilation on PO2 and PCO2 in the alveoli

Figure 17-15


Ventilation10

Ventilation


Ventilation11

Ventilation

Local control matches ventilation and perfusion

Figure 17-16a


Ventilation12

Ventilation

Figure 17-16b


Ventilation13

Ventilation

Figure 17-16c


Ventilation14

Ventilation

  • Auscultation = diagnostic technique

  • Obstructive lung diseases

    • Asthma

    • Emphysema

    • Chronic bronchitis


Summary

Summary

  • Respiratory system

    • Cellular respiration, external respiration, respiratory system, upper respiratory tract, pharynx, and larynx

    • Lower respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, Type I and Type II alveolar cells

    • Diaphragm, intercostal muscles, lung, pleural sac, and plural fluid

  • Gas Laws: Dalton’s law and Boyle’s law


Summary1

Summary

  • Ventilation

    • Tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume, and respiratory cycle

    • Alveolar pressure, active expiration, intrapleural pressures, compliance, elastance, surfactant, bronchoconstriction, and bronchodilation

    • Total pulmonary ventilation, alveolar ventilation, hyperventilation, and hypoventilation


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