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Respiratory System. The respiratory system Gas laws Ventilation. Respiratory System. Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood Homeostatic regulation of body pH Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances Vocalization. Principles of Bulk Flow.

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Respiratory system
Respiratory System

  • The respiratory system

  • Gas laws

  • Ventilation


Respiratory system1
Respiratory System

  • Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood

  • Homeostatic regulation of body pH

  • Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances

  • Vocalization


Principles of bulk flow
Principles of Bulk Flow

  • Flow from regions of higher to lower pressure

  • Muscular pump creates pressure gradients

  • Resistance to flow

    • Diameter of tubes


Respiratory system2
Respiratory System

Overview of external and cellular respiration

Figure 17-1


Respiratory system3
Respiratory System

  • Conducting system

  • Alveoli

  • Bones and muscle of thorax


Respiratory system4
Respiratory System

Figure 17-2a



The respiratory system
The Respiratory System

The relationship between the pleural sac and the lung

Figure 17-3


Branching of airways
Branching of Airways

Figure 17-2e



Alveolar structure
Alveolar Structure

Figure 17-2g


Pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary Circulation

  • Right ventricle  pulmonary trunk  lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium

PLAY

Animation: Respiratory System: Anatomy Review



Gas laws1
Gas Laws

Pgas = Patm % of gas in atmosphere


Boyle s law
Boyle’s Law

Gases move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure

Figure 17-5


Spirometer
Spirometer

Figure 17-6



Conditioning
Conditioning

  • Warming air to body temperature

  • Adding water vapor

  • Filtering out foreign material



Air flow
Air Flow

  • Flow  P/R

  • Alveolar pressure or intrapleural pressure can be measured

  • Single respiratory cycle consists of inspiration followed by expiration









Pressure in the pleural cavity1
Pressure in the Pleural Cavity

Pneumothorax results in collapsed lung that can not function normally

Figure 17-12b


Compliance and elastance
Compliance and Elastance

  • Compliance: ability to stretch

    • High compliance

      • Stretches easily

    • Low compliance

      • Requires more force

      • Restrictive lung diseases

        • Fibrotic lung diseases and inadequate surfactant production

  • Elastance: returning to its resting volume when stretching force is released


Law of laplace
Law of LaPlace

Surface tension is created by the thin fluid layer between alveolar cells and the air

Figure 17-13


Surfactant
Surfactant

  • More concentrated in smaller alveoli

  • Mixture containing proteins and phospholipids

  • Newborn respiratory distress syndrome

    • Premature babies

    • Inadequate surfactant concentrations


Air flow1
Air Flow

PLAY

Animation: Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation


Ventilation
Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Atmospheric

air

150

350

500 mL

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

Dead space

is filled with

fresh air.

2

150

mL

150

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

Only

350 mL

of fresh air

reaches

alveoli.

350

2200 mL

150

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

4

The first 150 mL

of air into the

alveoli is stale

air from the

dead space.

Inhale 500 mL

of fresh air

(tidal volume).

4

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Total pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation

Total pulmonary ventilation = ventilation rate  tidal volume

Figure 17-14


Ventilation1
Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

KEY

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, step 1


Ventilation2
Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

150

350

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

2

150

mL

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

2200 mL

KEY

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–2


Ventilation3
Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

150

350

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

2

150

mL

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–3


Ventilation4
Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Atmospheric

air

150

350

500 mL

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

Dead space

is filled with

fresh air.

2

150

mL

150

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

Only

350 mL

of fresh air

reaches

alveoli.

350

2200 mL

150

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

4

The first 150 mL

of air into the

alveoli is stale

air from the

dead space.

Inhale 500 mL

of fresh air

(tidal volume).

4

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–4


Ventilation5
Ventilation

Dead space filled with fresh air

The first exhaled

air comes out of

the dead space.

Only 350 mL leaves

the alveoli.

150

mL

1

2700 mL

1

End of inspiration

Atmospheric

air

150

350

500 mL

2

Exhale 500 mL

(tidal volume).

Dead space

is filled with

fresh air.

2

150

mL

150

At the end of

expiration, the

dead space is

filled with

“stale” air from

alveoli.

3

Respiratory

cycle in

an adult

Only

350 mL

of fresh air

reaches

alveoli.

350

2200 mL

150

2200 mL

Dead space filled

with stale air

4

The first 150 mL

of air into the

alveoli is stale

air from the

dead space.

Inhale 500 mL

of fresh air

(tidal volume).

4

150

mL

KEY

2200 mL

3

PO2 = 160 mm Hg

PO2 ~ 100 mm Hg

~

Figure 17-14, steps 1–5


Ventilation6
Ventilation

Alveolar ventilation = ventilation rate  (tidal volume – dead space volume)




Ventilation9
Ventilation

Effects of changing alveolar ventilation on PO2 and PCO2 in the alveoli

Figure 17-15



Ventilation11
Ventilation

Local control matches ventilation and perfusion

Figure 17-16a


Ventilation12
Ventilation

Figure 17-16b


Ventilation13
Ventilation

Figure 17-16c


Ventilation14
Ventilation

  • Auscultation = diagnostic technique

  • Obstructive lung diseases

    • Asthma

    • Emphysema

    • Chronic bronchitis


Summary
Summary

  • Respiratory system

    • Cellular respiration, external respiration, respiratory system, upper respiratory tract, pharynx, and larynx

    • Lower respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, Type I and Type II alveolar cells

    • Diaphragm, intercostal muscles, lung, pleural sac, and plural fluid

  • Gas Laws: Dalton’s law and Boyle’s law


Summary1
Summary

  • Ventilation

    • Tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume, and respiratory cycle

    • Alveolar pressure, active expiration, intrapleural pressures, compliance, elastance, surfactant, bronchoconstriction, and bronchodilation

    • Total pulmonary ventilation, alveolar ventilation, hyperventilation, and hypoventilation


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