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Cold War. 1945-1991. Cold War Beginnings. Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two superpowers left Soon after WWII these two powers were in a Cold War (Icy Tensions) Why?- different economic systems, strategic interests, Stalin’s Speech, Iron Curtain Speech, Atomic Weapons.

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cold war

Cold War

1945-1991

cold war beginnings
Cold War Beginnings
  • Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two superpowers left
  • Soon after WWII these two powers were in a Cold War (Icy Tensions)
  • Why?- different economic systems, strategic interests, Stalin’s Speech, Iron Curtain Speech, Atomic Weapons
pre cold war distrust
Pre Cold War distrust
  • US
    • Communism antithesis of Democracy/Freedom/Capitalism
    • Stalin’s Purges
    • Non-Aggression Pact
    • USSR emphasis on Worldwide communism
  • USSR
    • US attempted to undo Revolution
    • Delayed attack on Western Front during WWII
    • Believes peace will come from worldwide communism
yalta conference 1945
Yalta Conference 1945
  • Big 3 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
  • Germany Split into 4 Occupied Zones
  • Soviet vs. Western Allies (Tension for Four Decades)
  • Agreement to create United Nations
potsdam 1945
Potsdam- 1945
  • Big 3 – Truman, Churchill, Stalin
  • Meeting more tense (Truman’s style, plus knowledge of da bomb)
  • Presses Stalin for free elections in Eastern Europe
  • Stalin later gives speech saying Capitalism and Communism cannot exist in same world
united states 1946
United States 1946
  • Churchill Warns of an “Iron Curtain” in Europe
  • Stalin calls speech an act of war, beginning of the Cold War
truman doctrine 1946
Truman Doctrine- 1946
  • Turkey and Greece faced Communist revolutions
  • Truman asks for and recieves 400 million to aid fight against communism
  • Beginning of Containment Policy (not allow communism to spread)
    • Becomes guiding US policy into 1970’s
western europe 1947
Western Europe 1947
  • The Marshall Plan gives aid to European Nations
  • Rebuilt Western Europe, threatened Communism
berlin germany
Berlin, Germany
  • Stalin cuts off access to Berlin, US sends airplanes with supplies
  • Stalin backs off, Victory for West
western europe north america 1949
Western Europe/ North America 1949
  • NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • USSR creates Warsaw Pact in 1955
ussr china 1949
USSR/China- 1949
  • USSR develops A-Bomb
  • Arms race develops between US and USSR
  • China falls to the Communists
eisenhower
Eisenhower
  • Eisenhower / Dulles policy of Massive Retaliation (Brinkmanship)
korea
Korea
  • Communist North Korea Invades South Korea
  • UN and West aid South Korea while Soviet Union and China aid North Korea
  • 1950-1953
vietnam 1954
Vietnam 1954
  • US actively aids against Ho Chi Minh and Communists
  • French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
cuba 1959
Cuba 1959
  • Fidel Castro and Communists take Cuba
cuba 1960
Cuba 1960
  • Bay of Pigs invasion, attempted overthrow of Fidel Castro’s Communism
cuba 1962
Cuba 1962
  • Soviet Missiles Discovered in Cuba
  • Beginning of 13 Day Cuban Missile Crisis
cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Closest ever coming to Nuclear War
  • Kennedy vs. Kruschev
  • President Kennedy Blocks Cuba with Ships (“eye to eye and the other guy blinked”)
soviet union 1953 1956
Soviet Union 1953-1956
  • Stalin Dies in 1953, Nikita Kruschev becomes new Soviet Leader
  • 1956 begins policy of De-Stalinization
hungary 1956
Hungary 1956
  • Hungarian Leader Imre Nage takes Hungary out of Warsaw Pact
  • Kruschev sends in Soviet Troops to regain order
ussr 1957
USSR-1957
  • Soviets Launch Sputnik
  • Beginning of Space Race between US and USSR
berlin germany 1961
Berlin, Germany 1961
  • East Germany builds wall, cuts off access for East Germany to West Berlin Berlin
  • Wall became a symbol of the Cold War
ussr czecholslovakia 1964 1968
USSR / Czecholslovakia-1964-1968
  • 1964 Leonid Brezhnez becomes leader of Soviet Union
  • Czechovakian leader Alexander Dubcek lessoned censorship “Prague Spring”
  • Free Expression clamped down with Brezhnez Doctrine (later used in Afghanistan)
richard nixon and detente
Richard Nixon and Detente
  • Détente- Lessening Cold War Tensions
  • Real Politik- dealing with nations in a practical and flexible manner (anti-containment)
  • Nixon visits China (Sino-Soviet Split)
  • SALT Treaties
  • Policy continued with Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter
ronald reagan
Ronald Reagan
  • Fiercely Anti-Communist
  • Moved Away from Détente
  • Increased Military Spending
  • SDI, Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars
ussr 1985
USSR 1985
  • Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Premier
  • Begins a series of Reforms and Freedoms in Russia
glasnost
Glasnost
  • Openness- Churches opened, Press allowed to criticize government, Banned authors allowed to publish books
perestroika
Perestroika
  • “Economic Restructuring”, Managers make more decisions, small private businesses
democratization
Democratization
  • Gradual opening of the political system
  • Election of a new group of lawmakers
  • Communist Party no longer chose all candidates
ussr 1991
USSR 1991
  • Nationalities begin to call of Independence
  • August Coup, by Communist Hardliners
  • Boris Yeltsin Seen as Hero
  • Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia
russia 1991 1999
Russia 1991-1999
  • Boris Yeltsin President
  • Forms Commonwealth of Independent States of CIS
  • Shock Therapy for Economy
russia 1999 2008
Russia 1999-2008
  • Vladimir Putin appointed President in 1999 (won re-election twice)
  • Forcefully dealt with Chechnya
  • Tightened Grip of government on Economy
  • Restricted Voting Rights and Liberties
central and eastern europe poland
Central and Eastern EuropePoland
  • Lech Walesa leads workers Union Solidarity against Communist Government
  • Series of strikes and crackdowns. By 1989, Solidarity was legal in Poland, helped gain free elections
berlin germany 1989
Berlin, Germany 1989
  • Berlin Wall falls after Hungary opens its borders (Symbol of End of Cold War)
  • Start of the collapse of the Eastern Bloc
  • Process of Reunification
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