Chapter 3: Air pollution control laws and regulations, Air pollution control philosophies. 3.1 Us Air pollution laws and regulations Most air pollution control engineers works with permits and also the major facilities
Air pollution control laws and regulations, Air pollution control philosophies
Most air pollution control engineers works with permits and also the major facilities
These permits are authorized by local, state, or federal authorities, normally, expressed as:
The emissions of pollutant X from the main stack factory Y shall not exceed Z pound per hours
Federal regulations direct the states to require a permit for each facility that has the potential to emit 100 tons/ Yr or 25 ton/ Yr of Hazardous
3.2 Air pollution control philosophies for each facility that has the potential to emit 100 tons/ Yr or 25 ton/ Yr of Hazardous
The main wish is to have a completely un-polluted environment at no cost to any one
The logic is to have appropriately clean environment with appropriate cost distributed among industry car owners and other sources of pollutants
3.3 The four philosophies for each facility that has the potential to emit 100 tons/ Yr or 25 ton/ Yr of Hazardous
The regulations often based on mixture of philosophies such as
1- Emission standards
2- Air quality standards
3- Emission taxes
4- Cost- benefit standards
3.3.1 The emission standard philosophy for each facility that has the potential to emit 100 tons/ Yr or 25 ton/ Yr of Hazardous
The maximum emissions of different classes will keep the pollution emission rate at lowest possibility and each class is required to limit emissions to this maxima
So if this philosophy is followed we will have the cleanest possible air
The cleanest possible air philosophy
Best technology type for each facility that has the potential to emit 100 tons/ Yr or 25 ton/ Yr of Hazardous
The alkali acts in England followed the Leblanc process for manufacturing an alkali soda ash Na2 CO3 , HCL as byproduct was emitted of the smokestack of the plant
Legislations led to "Alkali inspectors" who their duty was to regularly inspect all alkali plants and to find the best technique for minimizing the emission
Then enforcing the other plants to adopt the best technology
The best technology is still widely used specially in cases where determining the emission rate in pound per hours would be difficult
large gasoline storage tanks
open burning of garbage and agricultural wastes
Emission standards is applied to regulate the emission of pollutants from the chimneys of industrial plants i-e
Visible emissions from the chimney of coal- burning furnaces are indicative of re-emissions of air particles
regulations limiting these visible emissions are of a form of emission standard
Fuel sulfur content and gasoline olefin content and oxygen content minima are of emission standard
Because S → SO2
Olefins →photochemical smog
Increasing O2 implies Decreasing CO emission
All these kinds of emission standards have the same general idea:
There is some degree of emission control that it is practical to impose upon all members of a well- defined class of emitters and that degree of control is required of all members of that class
This philosophy was the basis of most of the air pollution activities in the industrial world from 1863-1970
In U.S air pollution law two sections are "pure" emission standards
New source performance standard "NSPS" NESHAP
3.3.11: Advantages and disadvantages of emissions standard activities in the industrial world from 1863-1970
The cost effectiveness of the emission standard philosophy is bad.
i.e. if the same emission standard were applied for a specific class of emitters , for both remote location and in those in industrial densely populated areas, then for a stringent standard, the remote plants will make large expenditure to produce a small reduction in damage to receivers and hence a small benefit.
The activities in the industrial world from 1863-1970simplicity of the emission standard philosophy is excellent, the entire set of regulations consist s of the permitted emission rates and the description of the test method to be used to determine whether the emission standards are being met
The enforceability of the emission standard philosophy is excellent, once the standards are set and tests methods defined, one knows whom to monitor and for what.
The activities in the industrial world from 1863-1970flexibility of this philosophy is poor, if a plant orders pollution control equipment, and the equipment fails to meet the manufacturers predicted performance criteria ( and hence the emission standards) it may take years to replace it.
Q. how should the air pollution control authorities deal with this plant.
Under this philosophy, they can ……..
The activities in the industrial world from 1863-1970evolutionary ability of this philosophy is fair, if a new technology makes it possible to set a lower standard, it can be implemented for all sources built after a certain date.
-Emission standard philosophy is a ”cleanest possible air”
-The Air Quality Standard Philosophy is a
-What is the relation between threshold values and the philosophy of The Air Quality Standard Philosophy?
*The idea of threshold values that which no air pollution activities in the industrial world from 1863-1970
damage would occur
*The air quality standard philosophy is based on the
assumption that the true situation for most major
air pollutant is the threshold value situation.
The U.S air pollution community is trying to do precisely that, by carrying out the basic air quality standard philosophy of the Clean Air Act
To apply this philosophy must study the " available dose-response data and determine the threshold values
National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) –which are maximum allowable level of contamination & EPA established such standards for six major pollutants
The process of setting these standards calls for issuing documents called "Air Quality Criteria " for which reason the pollutants on this list are called " Criteria pollutants"
The states are now attempting to manage air quality to ensure that those standards will not be exceeded , ever , any where
To procedure is illustrated in flowchart in fig.(3.2)
This process was initiated in the United States in April 1971
In 2000, 25 years after the original deadlines , many of the standards have not been met in the regions with the most difficult problem. For the most part we failed to meet the standards because we underestimate the total emissions, overestimate the efficacy of control measures, and used optimistic models to predict future air quality
The states and the EPA are now on their third or fourth time around the loop shown in fig(3.2) trying to bring the ambient air pollutant concentration down to the NAAQS.
These simulation apply for each of the six pollutants for which we have NAAQS and in each Air Quality Control Region(AQCR) in each states, the process continues until such time as the air becomes as clean as the standards require
The advantages and disadvantages time around the loop shown in fig(3.2) trying to bring the ambient air pollutant concentration down to the NAAQS.
of the air quality standards philosophy
This philosophy cost effectiveness is good but not excellent*
*Require some control expenditures for which the damage reduction benefits are small
No one has found away to write a simple set of regulation based on this philosophy
*EPA's efforts to write a simple set of regulation *The reason of this complexity is that we are attempting to control the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air
cause as its complexity
The flexibility of the air quality standard philosophy is far (why?)
Because of the multiple way by which air quality standards can be met
The evolutionary ability of the air quality standards philosophy is fair. As new data appear
The most difficulty which led to court action in the United States
,concerns nondegradation or nondeterioration
-The two philosophies discussed next are not in use to any significant extent any where in the world, but rather are ideas that have had theoretical discussion in academic journals.
-They represent future alternatives.
• Laws based on an emission tax philosophy would tax
each emitter of major pollutants according to its emission
– e.g. X cents per pound of pollutant Y for all emitters.
• This tax rate would be set so that most major polluters
would find it more economical to install pollution control
equipment than pay the taxes.
• Emission taxes have also been proposed in combination
with air quality standard philosophy : in this combination,
emission taxes would act as an added incentive to
reduce emissions to lower levels than those required to
meet air quality standards.
• Air Quality Standard and Emission taxes would work in
The emission tax philosophy assumes that the environment has natural removal mechanisms for pollutants (with CFCs as possible exception) and at any particular contaminant level the environment has a finite , renewable absorptive or dispersive capability.
If we take that view and apply the pure form of emission taxes , then we accomplish two desirable results:
First: The degree of pollution control by individual firm becomes an internal economic decision.
There will be competition between firms to reduce the emission for lower tax.
Second: Minimize the misallocation of pollution control
Making the decisions whether or not to control the pollution and what the degree of control should be is a matter of the internal economics of major emitters would probably result in a better overall cost effectiveness than is possible with uniform emission standards.
Industry has complained about their difficulties with changing standards ( shooting at a moving target)
decide in as rational a manner as possible,
– how much damage we should accept and
– how much we should be willing to spend to reduce damages to this level.
by air pollution control expenditures.
• The control cost goes up steeply as the ambient air concentration becomes small.
• The sum of the two costs has a Minimum value ,when the slopes of the two cost curves are equal and opposite
d( pollution control costs + pollution damage costs) =0
d (ambient air pollution concentrations)
In reality there is:
الفصل الثاني: البيئة الهوائية
أ. تحدد الوزارة بالتعاون مع الجهات المختصة المقاييس المتعلقة بضبط نسب ملوثات الهواء التي قد تسبب الأذى والضرر للصحة العامة أو الرفاه الاجتماعي أو البيئة.
ب. على كل منشأة تقام في فلسطين أن تلتزم بهذه المقاييس، وعلى المنشآت القائمة تعديل أوضاعها بما يتفق وهذه المقاييس خلال فترة زمنية لا تزيد عن ثلاث سنوات.
The Ministry, in cooperation with the specialized agencies, shall specify standards to regulate the percentage of pollutants in the air which may cause harm or damage to public health, social welfare and the environment;
Each facility, which will be established in Palestine, shall abide to these standards; every existing facility shall make necessary changes in a manner that makes it conform to these standards within a period, which does not exceed three years.
الفصل الثاني: البيئة الهوائية
على صاحب المنشأة توفير سبل الحماية اللازمة للعاملين والمجاورين للمنشأة تنفيذا لشروط السلامة والصحة المهنية ضد أي تسرب أو انبعاث لأي ملوثات داخل مكان العمل أو خارجه.
Every facility owner shall provide all means to ensure the necessary protection for workers and the neighbors of the facility, in compliance with the conditions of occupational safety and health, against any leak or emission of pollutants in or out the working place.
الفصل الثاني: البيئة الهوائية
يحظر التدخين في وسائل النقل والأماكن العامة المغلقة.
It is forbidden to smoke in transportation means and closed public areas.
الفصل الثاني: البيئة الهوائية
لا يجوز استخدام آلات أو محركات أو مركبات ينتج عنها عادم يخالف المقاييس المحددة بموجب أحكام هذا القانون.
. It shall be prohibited to utilize machines, engines or vehicles that generate exhaust that does not comply with the standards specified in accordance with the provisions of this law.
يحظر إلقاء أو معالجة أو حرق القمامة والمخلفات الصلبة إلا في الأماكن المخصصة لذلك، وفقاً للشروط المحددة من قبل الوزارة بما يكفل حماية البيئة.
تعمل الوزارة على الحد من استنزاف طبقة الأوزون وفقا لما نصت عليه المعاهدات الدولية التي تلتزم بها فلسطين وذلك باتخاذ الإجراءات المناسبة فيما يتعلق باستيراد أو إنتاج أو استعمال أية مواد كيماوية تسبب ضررا لذلك.