Surface UV from TOMS/OMI measurements
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Surface UV from TOMS/OMI measurements. N. Krotkov 1 , J. Herman 2 , P.K. Bhartia 2 , A. Tanskanen 3 , A. Arola 4 Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) Center, UMBC, Baltimore, MD Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD Finnish Meteorological Institute , Helsinki, Finland

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Surface UV from TOMS/OMI measurements

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Surface uv from toms omi measurements

Surface UV from TOMS/OMI measurements

  • N. Krotkov1, J. Herman2, P.K. Bhartia2 , A. Tanskanen3 , A. Arola4

  • Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) Center, UMBC, Baltimore, MD

  • Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD

  • Finnish Meteorological Institute , Helsinki, Finland

  • Finnish Meteorological Institute , Kuopio, Finland


Omi science questions

OMI Science questions

  • Is the ozone layer recovering ?

  • What are sources and distributions of aerosols and trace gases that affect global air quality?

  • What are the roles of tropospheric ozone and aerosols in climate change?

  • What are the causes of surface UV-B change ?

Levelt et al “ Science objectives of Ozone Monitoring Instrument “ in IEEE- TGRS AURA special issue


Uv products noon irradiance daily cie dose 305nm 310nm 324nm 380nm cie uv index

UV products: noon irradiance + Daily CIE dose(305nm, 310nm, 324nm, 380nm, CIE - UV index)

324nm

305nm

380nm

Erythemal – UV index


Current applications of toms omi uv data

Current Applications of TOMS/OMI UV data

1. Sun burn and skin cancer PHS, NIH, WHO

2. Eye cataracts PHS, NIH, WHO

3. Plant damage - Crop yields USDA

4. Food chain - Land – Oceans USDA, NOAA

5. Effect on insect population NIH, PHS, WHO


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

TOMS/OMI UV algorithm

OMI Ozone

Sun: Fo ( ~ 3% uncertainty )

Clouds and non-absorbing aerosols are well corrected

Clouds

Fc ~ FO3(1 – R)

Absorbing aerosols are still a major problem

Aerosols


Cloud correction algorithm ct

Cloud correction algorithm (CT)

ISCCP

TOMS

daily

Satellite CT estimate

10 day

monthly

UV- Williams et al GRL 2004

(1:1)

(1:1)

PAR - Dye et al GRL 1995

Ground CT measurement


Clouds over snow correction

Clouds over snow correction

  • Surface albedo is a crucial parameter for estimation of the surface UV in regions with temporary snow or ice.

  • OMI UV algorithm applies an albedo climatology derived from the N7/TOMS reflectivity data using the moving time window method.

  • The accuracy of the surface UV estimates for high latitudes has improved.However, the estimates for albedo transient periods are still uncertain.

http://promote.fmi.fi/MTW_www/MTW.html


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

The TOMS-Brewer difference for erythemally weighted UV irradiance and for UV irradiance at 305, 310, and 324 nm. Summer noon values for mostly clear sky conditions (TOMS reflectivity <0.2)


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

The TOMS-Brewer difference for erythemally weighted summer noon UV irradiance for mostly clear sky conditions (TOMS reflectivity <0.2)

Urban locations


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

Long-range ABSORBING aerosol transport in free troposphere is uniquely tracked by OMI/TOMS Aerosol Index (AI)

US

AI cannot detect boundary layer UV absorbing aerosols resulting in overestimates of UV irradiance that are frequently 10% and sometimes 20%.

India

Southeast Asia

TOMS AI examples of high-density smoke aerosols that affect various coastal regions in the US, India, and Southeast Asia. Lesser amounts of smoke, dust, and carbonaceous aerosols frequently cause overestimations of UV irradiance if ignored.


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

UV reduction due to absorbing aerosols in free troposphere (dust, smoke) is corrected using positive AI >0.5 data

Industrial aerosols close to the ground are not seen in AI data (AI <0), so they are treated as thin clouds, which leads to positive UV bias


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

Ground AEROSOL absorption measurements

UV Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

AERONET CIMEL sun-sky radiometers

Brewer spectrometer ozone, SO2, NO2 [Cede and Herman]

Since 2002, the NASA TOMS, AERONET and USDA UVB programs have shared equipment, personnel and analysis tools to quantify aerosol UV-VIS absorption using a combination of ground based radiation measurements.


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

TOMS UV Correction for Absorbing Aerosols in Greenbelt, USA 1

TOMS/Ground UV

ABS at 325nm

ABS at 325nm

The ratio between satellite estimated (by TOMS UV algorithm7-10) and measured (by UVMFRSR) total (direct plus diffuse) surface UV irradiance at 325nm versus aerosol absorption optical thickness at 325nm inferred from combined UV-MFRSR and AERONET measurements at NASA/GSFC site. The line shows theoretical relationship derived from radiative transfer modeling10.

Time series of aerosol absorption optical thickness tabs at 368nm, derived from 17 months UV-MFRSR operation at NASA GSFC site in Maryland, US. The data are for cloud-free and snow-free conditions and tabs(440)>0.1. Individual tabs(368) values were averaged over 1-hour period of time within ±60min of the AERONET inversion.

1Krotkov et al. Opt. Engineering 2005


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

TOMS UV Correction for Absorbing Aerosols in 2 urban sites 1

SZA=20-30

SZA=40-50

SZA=60-70

The ratio of TOMS to Brewer irradiance at 324nm against aerosol absorption optical thickness in Thessaloniki, Greece

The ratio of TOMS to Brewer irradiance at 324nm against aerosol absorption optical thickness at Ispra, Italy

1Arola et al. accepted JGR 2005


Future applications of omi data

Future Applications of OMI data

1. Global mapping of PAR (400-700nm)

2. Actinic flux profile and J-rates for photochemistry models3. UV irradiance on tilted surfaces

4. Global mapping of underwater UV-PAR irradiance5. Global primary production estimates

6. Global carbon cycle models


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

Erythemal Irradiance Trend 1980 to 2002

O3

R360


Surface uv from toms omi measurements

305 nm Irradiance Trend 1980 to 2002

O3

R360


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