Clinical phonetics
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Clinical Phonetics. Disorders. Articulation Disorders vs. Phonological Disorders. Methods of evaluation. Standardized tests Consonants Consonant clusters Sometimes vowels Spontaneous connected speech. Analyzing results. Misarticulations /articulation errors Phoneme to phoneme analysis

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Clinical Phonetics

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Clinical phonetics

Clinical Phonetics


Disorders

Disorders

  • Articulation Disorders vs.

  • Phonological Disorders


Methods of evaluation

Methods of evaluation

  • Standardized tests

    • Consonants

    • Consonant clusters

    • Sometimes vowels

  • Spontaneous connected speech


Analyzing results

Analyzing results

  • Misarticulations/articulation errors

  • Phoneme to phoneme analysis

  • Types of errors/categories

    • Substitution

    • Addition

    • Omission

    • Distortion

  • Manner, place and voicing categories


Phonological development

Phonological development

  • Disparity of Findings

    • Socioeconomic

    • Number of subjects

    • Method of speech sampling

    • Determining mastery – the age at which a particular phoneme is produced with some degree of accuracy (75-100% or 90-100%)

    • Customary Production – the age at which a particular phoneme is produced with greater than 50% accuracy in at least two word positions.

    • Gender of subjects

    • Dialects


Developmental findings

Developmental findings

  • 90% mastery of several phonemes occurs by 3

  • Master of English phonemes may not be complete until 7-9 years

  • Manner – nasal, stops acquired first, then glides, fricatives, liquids and affricates

  • Place – front (labial/alverolar) produced first, then velar and palatal.


Phonological process

Phonological process

  • Based on Natural Phonology theory – young children are born with innate processes necessary for the production of speech.

  • They often simplify the adult form.

  • As they mature, they learn to suppress the processes, and produce the appropriate form


Phonological processes

Phonological Processes

  • Simplification of adult speech patterns

  • As children mature they learn to suppress these processes

  • Child is not viewed as not having a sound in his phonetic inventory, but as using a process that results in the deletion of that sound

  • Are found in typically developing children


Phonological processes1

Phonological Processes

  • Categories

    • Syllable structure processes

    • Substitution processes

    • Assimilatory processes


Phonological processes2

Phonological Processes

  • Table 7.2


Syllable structure processes

Syllable Structure Processes

  • Syllables are simplified, usually into a consonant-vowel (CV) pattern

  • CV patterns among the first to be used by infants


Syllable structure processes1

Syllable Structure Processes

  • Weak syllable deletion

    • Weak syllable is omitted when it precedes or follows a stressed syllable

  • Final consonant deletion

    • Final consonant is deleted

    • Patten becomes open syllable (CV)

    • Children start to use final consonants by 3:0

    • Process suppressed by 3:6


Syllable structure processes2

Syllable Structure Processes

  • Reduplication

    • Repetition of a syllable of a word

    • Total reduplication – entire syllable

    • Partial reduplication – repetition of just a consonant or vowel

    • Suppressed before 3:0

  • Cluster reduction

    • Deletion of a consonant from a consonant cluster

    • If three sounds in consonant cluster then one or two may be deleted

    • Suppressed at 4:0


Substitution processes

Substitution Processes

  • The replacement of one class of phonemes for another


Substitution processes1

Substitution Processes

  • Stopping

    • Substitution of a stop for a fricative or affricate

    • Common because stops are acquired before fricatives

    • Usually for a stop produced with the same or similar place of articulation

    • May have a change in voicing

    • Suppressed by 2:6 to 5:0


Substitution processes2

Substitution Processes

  • Stopping

    • Fricative/affricate Substitute stop

      • /s,,, /t/

      • ,,, /d/

      •  /p/

      •  /b/


Substitution processes3

Substitution Processes

  • Fronting

    • Substitution of velar and palatal consonants with alveolar place of articulation

    • Suppressed by 2:6 to 3:0


Substitution processes4

Substitution Processes

  • Fronting

    • Velar Alveolar

      • /k/ /t/

      • /g/ /d/

      • // /n/

    • Palatal Alveolar

      • // /s/

      • // /ts/

      • // /z/

      • // /dz/


Substitution processes5

Substitution Processes

  • Deaffrication

    • Substitution of fricative for an affricate

  • Gliding

    • Substitution of glides /w/ or /j/ for liquid /l/ and /r/

    • Suppressed by 5:0 +


Substitution processes6

Substitution Processes

  • Vocalization

    • Substitution of a vowel for postvocalic /l/ or /r/

    • Common in words with

      • /l/,

      • syllabic /l/

      • stressed and unstressed shwars

    • Vowels substituted

      • //

      • //

      • //, //


Assimilatory processes

Assimilatory Processes

  • Alteration in phoneme production due to phonetic environment – Assimilation

  • Assimilatory processes

    • Labial

    • Velar

    • Nasal

    • Voicing

  • Types

    • Progressive

    • Regressive

  • Not present in all typically developing children

  • Suppressed by 3:0


Assimilatory processes1

Assimilatory Processes

  • Labial assimilation

    • Nonlabial phoneme is produced with a labial place due to presence of labial phoneme in word

  • Alveolar assimilation

    • Nonalveolar is produced with an alveolar place of articulation due to presence of alveolar phoneme in the word


Assimilatory processes2

Assimilatory Processes

  • Velar assimilation

    • Nonvelar phoneme is produced with a velar place of articulation due to presence of velar phoneme in the word

  • Voicing assimilation

    • Prevocalic

      • Voicing of a normally unvoiced consonant

      • When consonant precedes the nucleus of a syllable

    • Devoicing

      • Syllable final voiced phonemes that either

        • Precede a pause or silence between words, or

        • Occur at the end of an utterance

      • Final phoneme assimilates to the silence following the word


Phonological processes3

Phonological Processes

  • May occur individually or in combination

  • More than one process may affect the pronunciation of any phoneme

    • June to /dun/ (deaffrication, stopping and fronting)

  • Not all processes occur in typically developing children


Common phonological processes

Common Phonological Processes

  • Most common in typically developing children

    • Weak syllable deletion

    • Final consonant deletion

    • Gliding

    • Cluster reduction


Suppression

Suppression

  • Suppression does not happen all at once

  • Most processes disappear by the age of 4

  • Suppressed by the age of three

    • Weak syllable deletion

    • Final consonant deletion

    • Reduplication

    • Fronting

    • Consonant assimilation

    • Prevocalic voicing


Suppression1

Suppression

  • Suppressed after the age of three

    • Cluster reduction

    • Gliding

    • Vocalization

    • Stopping

    • Final devoicing


Phonological disorders

Phonological Disorders

  • Children may display same types of processes

  • Processes may be suppressed later


Processes common to children with phonological disorders

Processes common to children with phonological disorders

  • Cluster reduction

  • Weak syllable deletion

  • Final consonant deletion

  • Stopping

  • Velar and palatal fronting

  • Voicing processes

  • Labial, nasal and velar assimilation

  • Liquid simplification (combination of gliding and vocalization)


Idiosyncratic processes

Idiosyncratic Processes

  • Processes not usually found in the speech of typically developing children

    • Glottal replacement –glottal stop for consonant

    • Backing –velar stop consonant for more anterior consonants

      • Usually involves alveolar and palatals, but may include labials

    • Initial consonant deletion

    • Stops replacing glide

    • Fricatives replacing a stop


Independent analysis

Independent analysis

  • Inventory of phonemes produced by client

  • Syllable shapes (open/closed syllables, consonant clusters in initial/final position)

  • Combination of consonants and vowels (CV, CVC)

  • Word shapes (# of syllables)

  • Stress patterns


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