Chapter 9 “Part 1 - Development”. The gap is widening between the rich ( MDCs ) and poor ( LDCs ). A Country’s wealth is visible: … … … … A rich country has its wealth spread throughout most of its population.
“Part 1 - Development”
The United Nations (UN) – uses a number of ‘indexes’ (An index is usually a number out of 1, the closer to one the better) to illustrate the level of development. I will now list the 4 major ones. The first one is the most important and uses one number to give an indication of a countries Economic, Social and Demographic all in one number.
An example could be for the last one could be “The Big Mac Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.
Helps measure - Income poverty. How far your money will go?
Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).
HPI: Human Poverty Index Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.
The further you are from the value ‘one’ the wider the gap between rich and poor is another way to look at HPI.
The GEM combines two measures of economic power and two of political power by women. (Little data are available for LDCs.)
The GDI combines four measures of development, reduced by the degree of disparity between males and females.
Percentage employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.
3. Raw Materials: coal, iron ore, oil etc. Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.
4. Consumer Goods: cars, telephones, etc
Social Indicators to Development:
1. Education and Literacy:
2. Health and Welfare:
Demographic Indicators of Development:
1. Life Expectancy:
2. Infant Mortality Rate:
3. Birth and Death Rate and Natural Increase Rate:
Value Added: gross value of a product minus the cost of raw materials and energy (the cost to make it).
Economic Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.Annual GDP per Capita
Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over $20,000 in most developed countries but under $5,000 in most less developed countries.
Economic Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.Telephones per Population
Mean telephone lines per 1,000 persons, 2002. MDCs have several dozen phone lines per 1,000 persons, while the poorer developing countries may have less than 10.
Economic Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.Calories per Capita
Daily available calories per capita as percent of requirements. In MDCs, the average person consumes one-third or more over the required average minimum, while in LDCs, the average person gets only the minimum requirement or less.
Economic and Social Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.Persons per Physician
There is a physician for every 500 or fewer people in most MDCs, while thousands of people share a doctor on average in LDCs.
Social Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.Student-Teacher Ratios
Students per teacher, primary school level. Primary school teachers have much larger class sizes in LDCs than in MDCs, partly because of the large numbers of young people in the population (Fig. 2-15).
The natural increase rate (NIR) is the percentage growth or decline in the population of a country per year (not including net migration). Countries in Africa and Southwest Asia have the highest current rates, while Russia and some European countries have negative rates.
The crude birth rate (CBR) is the total number of births in a country per 1,000 population per year. The lowest rates are in Europe, and the highest rates are in Africa and several Asian countries.
The crude death rate (CDR) is the total number of deaths in a country per 1,000 population per year. Because wealthy countries are in a late stage of the demographic transition, they often have a higher CDR than poorer countries.
A breakdown of Development by regions of the World Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.
The less developed regions include Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.
Measuring levels of Poverty Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.
Maslow's Level of Human Needs:
Love & Acceptance
End of Part 1 Index” – The relative cost of a Big Mac in various countries.