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Chapter 18: Late Adulthood: Social and Personality Development
Development Across the Lifespan
Erikson labeled the last stage of personality development EGO-INTEGRITY-VERSUS-DESPAIR, which is characterized by a process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it.
~Most people studied fell into the final category
Erikson, Peck, Levinson & Neugarten all suggest that a major characteristic of personality development in old age is looking backward, called a LIFE REVIEW,where people examine and evaluate their lives.
(Overall personality growth & development!)
~These theories help explain why aging is viewed more positively in less industrialized societies
~ Important to avoid broad global statements about how older adults are treated in a given society!
Selective Optimization with Compensation
According to this model, successful aging occurs when an older adult focuses on his or her most important areas of functioning & compensates for losses in other areas.
ADULT DAY-CARE FACILITIESare where elderly individuals receive care only during the day, but spend nights and weekends in their own homes.
Fears of nursing homes can lead to INSTITUTIONALISM, a psychological state in which people develop apathy, indifference, and a lack of caring about themselves.
The elderly must often live on a fixed income.
The elderly face rising health costs.
Living Patterns of Older Americans
Think about what these patterns might suggest about the relative health & adjustment of men & women.
Terman study, continued
Terman study, continued
For many couples, retirement means that relationships have to be refashioned.
Few events are more painful than the death of a spouse.
The Process of Adjustment to Widowhood
Heinemann & Evans, 1990
Friendships play an important role in the lives of those in late adulthood.
Social Activity in Late Adulthood
Friends & family play an important role in the social activity of the elderly.
Not all grandparents take great pride in their grandchildren.