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ADVANCED. LEC 13. University of Rio Grande Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D . ORNITHOLOGY. Migration & Navigation – Part I Reference Chapter 10. From Here to There…and Back Again.

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Advanced

ADVANCED

LEC

13

University of Rio Grande

Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D.

ORNITHOLOGY

Migration &

Navigation – Part I

Reference Chapter 10


From here to there and back again

From Here to There…and Back Again

“Bird migration is the world’s only true unifying natural phenomenon, stitching the continents together in a way that even the great weather systems fail to do” Weidensaul 1999


Advanced

Gill Fig 10-1,pg 275


Advanced

_________—shortest distance one-way between winter and summer ranges is _________ miles ! ! ! ! !


Migration

Migration

  • For many species of birds, migration is a _______ part of the annual cycle

  • ___________________________________ guide the preparation for migration and the migratory behavior itself

  • Ultimate factors such as weather and food availability trigger day-to-day departures and stops to refuel


Advanced

Ultimate

factors

WEATHER

COMPETITION

FOOD

LIGHT (or other)

Proximate

factors

Migratory

Restlessness =

“__________”

Hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary

MIGRATION

Deposition of

Subcutaneous fat layer


Migration1

Migration

  • LIGHT (or other) proximate factor—increasing photoperiod has tremendous impact on breeding cycle. Increase in light with increase in heat can bring this about.

  • The annual pattern of daylight changes (i.e., lengthening of daylight during the spring) is considerably ___________________ from year-to-year than the “spring warmup”.


Migratory restlessness

Migratory Restlessness

  • The German term for this is Zugunruhe. That term still sticks because if was first identified in captive, cage “wild” birds by German behavioral biologists. It is a compound word that consists of “Zug” = ________________ and “unruhe” = _____________________.

  • Migratory species (populations) exhibit this, a few non-migratory species do. The non-migratory species that do are said to exhibit _________ = tendency to revert back to ancestral type. This would suggest there is a ______________ for some migratory behavior responses


Tropical species

Tropical Species

  • Some show no refractory period (i.e., no resistence to being stimulated)

  • Research on common weaver birds (found in Africa)—when kept on a 15-hour light cycle—showed in peak breeding condition


Migration example

___________________ Migration example

  • Some species must “learn” the migration routes. This would be evident in species that would tend to flock together during migration.

  • Example of trying to rear in captivity—then release into the wild—__________cranes:had to have ultra-light “mom”—who had been _____________ on them shortly after hatching show themmigration route

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b-CRFT_Pvm4


Advanced

Culturally-based migration

SANDHILL CRANES


Of photoperiod alone explaining migration

______________ of PHOTOPERIOD alone explaining migration:

  • Operates principally in birds in ____________ latitudes, less so in tropical species

  • Increased light cannot initiate migration in ________________ migrants

  • ____________ migrations have no correlation with day length


Advanced

Some are

TRANSEQUATORIAL…

Most birds that migrate go

to the “tropics” and

tssentially stay in one

hemisphere

Breed in northern

hemisphere

Equator

Migrate to southern

temisphere for

winter


Of light on non equatorial species

__________ of Light on NON-equatorial species

  • TSH  Thyroid  Thyroxin  Molt(TSH = thyroid stimulating hormone)

  • FSH  Gonadal recrudescence  Ovulation or sperm formation(FSH = follicle stimulating hormone)

  • LH  Follicle or interstitial cells  Sex hormones songs, displays, soft part color enhancement, etc. (LH = lutenizing hormone)


Advanced

TSH

thyroid

FSH

LH

thyroxin

gonadal

recrudescence

molt

follicle or interstitial cells

sex hormones

ovulation or

sperm formation

songs, displays, soft

part coloration, etc.


Time of day

Time of Day

Times of migration as determined

by radar

  • Much migration goes on _______________—especially among small birds (i.e, songbirds) and waterfowl. This may be due to celestrial clues

  • Hawks migrate more during the day to take advantage of _________.

% Activity

fall

spring

Noon

Sunset

Noon

Sunrise

Midnight


Altitude of migration

Altitude of Migration

  • Most birds fly just ________ the clouds

  • Higher altitude may be response to be “air-cooled” in order to ________________ as a result of _________, which gives off much heat.Thus, most birds appear to select altitudes with 10oC (50oF) or less temps

Altitude

Stop

Start

Distance


Advanced

Altitude of Migration

10, 000

night

Height (ft)

5,000

day

0

% of birds


Other influences

Other Influences…

  • Influence of ______—tail winds would be most advantageous

  • _________________

  • More migration (on average) during _________

  • __________________


Influence of wind

Influence of wind

low

high

  • Lows rotate counterclockwise

  • Highs rotate clockwise

  • _____________________  peak movements during the fall.

  • _____________________  peak movement during the spring

warm

front

high

low

warm

front


Migration potpourri

Migration Potpourri

  • About equal distances traveled each night (day) during migration if weather is favorable

  • Most birds ______________________ (most passerines under 3,000 ft.)

  • Most large birds migrate in higher winds, passerines in slower winds

  • Some species may _____________ of migration route if encounter forminable/daunting weather conditions on way to breeding grounds. Example: snow geese


Advanced

Sandhill Cranes: mid-continent populations


Advanced

Sandhill Cranes – _____________________area

over 500,000 birds stop for 3-4 weeks


Migration patterns ebird science

Migration Patterns – eBird_______Science

  • Dickcisselhttp://ebird.org/content/ebird/occurrence/dickcissel/

  • Scarlet Tanager http://ebird.org/content/ebird/occurrence/scarlet-tanager/

  • White-throated sparrow http://ebird.org/content/ebird/occurrence/white-throated-sparrow/

  • Common Yellowthroat http://ebird.org/content/ebird/occurrence/common-yellowthroat/

  • Yellow-billed cuckoo http://ebird.org/content/ebird/occurrence/yellow-billed-cuckoo/


Advanced

_____________ Migrants

______in North America

______ in Central and/or South America


Types of migration

Types of Migration

  • __________ migration—just discussed

  • __________ migration—rare

  • __________ migration—mt. quail, ptarmigan

  • __________ migration—Heerman’s gull, California gull

  • __________ migration--shearwater


Types of migration con t

Types of Migration…con’t

  • _________________ migration

  • Sandhill crane migration (as noted…mid-migration staging)

  • _________________—fox sparrows and song sparrows (by species)

  • Etc. ptarmigan—by sex: males go further south than females

  • We’ve learned much about bird migrations via:a) ______________________b) ______________________c) ______________________


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