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ADVANCED. LEC 04. University of Rio Grande Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D . ORNITHOLOGY. Anatomy & Physiology Part I Reference Chapters 1 & 6. Skeleton Systems NOTABLE CHARACTERISTICS. ______ of adjacent bones (example: furcula … the wishbone)

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Advanced

ADVANCED

LEC

04

University of Rio Grande

Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D.

ORNITHOLOGY

Anatomy & Physiology

Part I

Reference Chapters 1 & 6


Skeleton systems notable characteristics

Skeleton SystemsNOTABLE CHARACTERISTICS

  • ______ of adjacent bones (example: furcula… the wishbone)

  • ______: Pneumaticity of many bones resulting in the presence of air cavities

Gary Ritcheson EKU


Skeletal make up

Skeletal Make-up

  • Bones of the______

  • Bones of the ______

  • Bones of the ______


Advanced

Gill Fig. 5-15, p133


Bones of the limbs wings

Bones of the LIMBS -- Wings

  • Humerus

  • Ulna & Radius

  • “rest”


Bones of the limbs wings con t

Bones of the LIMBS – Wings con’t

  • Humerus is ___________, proportion-wise, than in humans relative to the radius and ulna

  • Humerus has pneumatic cavity which receives an air sac. The air sacs connect directly to the primary and secondary bronchi—assists with air flow through the lungs

  • Ulna & Radius-to-humerus results in ________ as does ulna & radius to carpels


Bones of the limbs wings con t1

Bones of the LIMBS – Wings con’t

  • ________: radiale & ulnare

  • _________________________ (metacarpels)

  • Phalanges—__totala) alular digit (1)b) major digit (2)c) minor digit (1)


Bones of the limbs legs

Bones of the LIMBS – Legs

  • ____as specialized as wings in terms of bones…but still reduced number of bones from humans:__-humans__-birds

  • _______—knee cap is insignificant

  • ______—sits back far intopelvic girdle, allowingonly forward andbackward movement…_________ movement


Bones of the limbs legs con t

Bones of the LIMBS – Legs con’t

  • Tibiotarus and fibulaa) Tibiotarsus bigger of two; extends to heelb) fibula is poorly developed, does not extend to the heel


Bones of the limbs legs con t1

Bones of the LIMBS – Legs con’t

  • ________—”ankle” (fused) essentially not present… with other bones (i.e., tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus)

  • _____________: tarsometatarsus (or metatarsus…or tarsus)


Bones of the limbs foot feet

Bones of the LIMBS – Foot/Feet

  • ___________—3 to 4 digits Toe I is Hallux (project posteriorly)

  • __________ projections:a) Toe II–inner mostb) Toe III–middle mostc) Toe IV–outer most


Bones of the limbs foot feet con t

Bones of the LIMBS – Foot/Feet…con’t

  • Toe #1 (hallux) is equivalent to human “big” toe

  • No bird species have 5th toe, some __________


Bones of the trunk

Bones of the TRUNK

  • Vertebral column

  • Ribs

  • Sternum

  • Pectoral Girdle

  • Pelvic Girdle


Vertebral column

Vertebral Column

  • Cervical vertebrae: neck ______

  • Thoracic vertebrae: chest ____

  • Lumbar vertebrae: loin ____

  • Sacral vertebrae: pelvis ____

  • Caudal vertebrae: tail ____


Caudal aka tail vertebrae

Caudal (aka tail) Vertebrae

  • Terminal vertebra: represents several ______vertebrae in humans and reptiles

  • Terminal vertebra: ________--serves as base for rectrices

_____ caudal vertebrae


Advanced

Ribs

  • ________ (compared to human)

  • Typical rib: bony attachment in ___ places to the vertebrae… with cartilaginous attachment in place to sternum

  • This design permits sternum to move in __ directions for breathing


Sternum

Sternum

  • Breastbone

  • Two types:________: ventral surface flattened(flightless birds)________: ventralsurface keeled (flying birds)


Carina keel

Carina (keel)

  • Part of the sternum

  • Only found on ________sterna (i.e., flying birds)

  • ______________to the “typical” sternum bone found in mammals, some other vertebrates

  • Provides large surface for attachment of 2 key muscles:a) pectoralis major & minorb) supracoracoideus


Advanced

_______


Pectoral girdle

Pectoral Girdle

  • “shoulder” girdle

  • _______ supporting wing:a) _________b) _________c) _________(fused together =furcula =wishbone)

B

B

A

B

A

A

C

C


Pelvic girdle

Pelvic Girdle

  • Fairly similar to human pelvis

  • Gives support to _____

  • 3-parts:a) ilium—largest and longestb) ischium—thin, plate-likec) pubis—slender, needle-like

  • Bones are fused to vertebral column


Bones of the head

Bones of the HEAD

  • _____fusion

  • _____bones—3 areasa) craniumb) facec) tongue


Bones of the head cranium

Bones of the HEAD--Cranium


Advanced

Bones of the HEAD--Cranium

  • Occipital—base of cranium

  • Parietals—back & top

  • Frontals—roof of anterior portion of cranium

  • Squamosals

  • Periotic capsules—contain hearing organs


Advanced

Bones of the HEAD--Face

  • Quadrate—connect lower mandible with cranium

  • Quadratojugals & jugals—equals zygomatic arch in mammals

  • __________—”upper” jaw

  • Palatines--palate


Advanced

Bones of the HEAD—Face..con’t

  • ___________—form tip of upper mandiblea) part of culmen of beakb) dentary process

  • Nasals—rest on the ethmoid

  • Lacrimals— paired bones in anterior portions of orbits

  • _________ bonesa) two bones fused anteriorly (dentary)b) each jaw bone consist of 5, immovable bones


Advanced

Bones of the HEAD—Tongue

  • __________________a) glossohyal—main bulk of tongueb) basihyal, basibranchial, ceratobranchials, &epibranchials

epibranchial

Ceratobranchial

glossohyal

basibranchial

basihyal


Advanced

Skeletal Summary

  • __________number of bones

  • __________bones numerous

  • Ratite vs. carinate importance

  • Bones are _______, but structurally strong

  • Backbone _______to pelvic girdle


Advanced

remained flexibile

reduced flexibilility

rigidity

reduced flexibilility

center

of

gravity


Advanced

Frigatebird– has 7’ wingspan weights about 3 lbs

● only 4 oz. of that total is bone (~8%)


Perching

“Perching”

  • Does ___require much energy

  • Tendons that flex the toe can _____the foot a tight grip—on rear side of ankle

  • _________ contraction is required to hold the toes closed

  • _____________________ on tendons lying underneath the toe bones mesh with ridges on the inside surface of the surrounding tendon sheath


Advanced

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • ________--involuntary

  • ________ --involuntary

  • ________--voluntary


Advanced

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

_____________

_____________

  • Total muscles in birds: ___

  • Major differences—among species with respect to breast muscle tissue composition and color

  • Fast vs. slow twitch


Muscles mass distribution differences

Muscles – Mass distribution differences

flight muscles ______of

total body mass, legs ____

  • Hummingbirds & swallowsmostly flight

  • Predatory birds flight but use legsto capture prey

  • Swimming birds

  • “Terrestrial” birds--run instead of fly to flee

flight muscles ~_____of

total body mass, leg ____

limb & flight muscles about

equal percentage, overall

_______of total body mass

limb muscle mass __than

flight muscle mass


Muscles back to slow vs fast twitch

Muscles…back to Slow vs. Fast Twitch

  • Two basic processes “fuel” muscle contract:

    A) ____________metabolic pathways--achieve “quick” response --does not requires O2--more fast-twitch muscle fibers, relative

    to slow-twitch muscle fibers

    B)____________metabolic pathways--achieve “sustained” response--requires O2 --more slow-twitch muscle fibers, relativeto fast-twitch muscle fibers--slow-twitch muscle fibers contain lots of_____________


Twitch muscle fibers

_____________Twitch Muscle Fibers

Category Slow-TwitchFast-Twitch

______________morefewer

______________moreless

Myoglobinmoreless

Color appearancered-brownwhite

__________ build-uplowerhigher

Fatigueslowerquicker


White vs red dark meat examples

White vs. Red/Dark Meat Examples

  • “White” meat: turkeys, pheasant, chickens, grouse

  • Red/dark meat examples: pigeon, waterfowl (ducks, geese, swans), passerines, hawks, owls, vultures)


Muscles birds other flier vs runner differences

Muscles & Birds Other “flier” vs. “runner” differences

  • Composition of leg muscles indicates regular, sustainable activity

  • Composition of breast muscles (major muscle groups responsible for up- and downstroke of wings) indicative to long vs. short flight capabilities

  • Fliers—(think songbirds, waterfowl, etc.)a) legs: ______amounts of myoglobinb) breast: ______amounts of myoglobin

  • Runners—(think quail, pheasant, wild turkey)a) legs: ______amounts of myoglobinb) breast: _______________ myoglobin


More on muscle physiology

More on muscle physiology…

  • “White” muscle tissue has high ________ content—think “quick” energy. Allows for quick flight as it is metabolized ______________ (i.e., ____________)

  • Glycogen is transformed into ___________. Lactic acid is a ________ and its accumulation in the muscles limits stamina—disrupts “reset” of cellular processes

  • Birds use glycogen anaerobically at ________ and when _______, but as flight steadies, they switch to burning fat


Major flight muscles

Major Flight Muscles

↓ _________________– origin on keel of sternum (lateral side) and inserts at humerus on ventral side

_____________________relaxes during upstroke

↑ ________________– origin on keel of sternum (lateral side), passes through foramen triosseum, inserts (tendon) on dorsal head of humerus. Foramen trosseum formed by articulation of the furcula, coracoid, and scapula.relaxes during downstroke____________________


Advanced

pectoralis


Advanced

supracoracoideus


Advanced

Left humerus

Foramen

triosseum

right humerus

supracoracoideus


Skeletal muscles con t

Skeletal Muscles…con’t

  • Craniala) somaticb) _________ arch  tongue, pharynx, syrinx, glottis controls

  • Spinala) axialb) appendicular


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