The Molecular Components of Nutrient Exchange in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) interactions. .
The Molecular Components of Nutrient Exchange in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) interactions.
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The Molecular Components of Nutrient Exchange in ArbuscularMycorrhizal (AM) interactions.
Arbuscularmycorrhizas, or AM (formerly known as vesicular-arbuscularmycorrhizas, or VAM), are mycorrhizas whose hyphae enter into the plant cells, producing structures that are either balloon-like (vesicles) or dichotomously branching invaginations (arbuscules).
VAM is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.
characterized by the formation of unique structures, arbuscules and vesicles by fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota (VAM fungi).
VAM fungi help plants to capture nutrients such as phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen and micronutrients from the soil.
It is believed that the development of the arbuscularmycorrhizal symbiosis played a crucial role in the initial colonisation of land by plants and in the evolution of the vascular plants.
VAM – much less known about these associations than about ectomycorrhizae.
Appear to be the most common type of mycorrhizal association with respect to the number of plant species that form them
Found in species in all divisions of terrestrial plants – widely distributed in annuals, perennials, temperate and tropical trees, crop and wild plants
Estimated to occur on 300,000 plant spp.
All are in the Zygomycota in the Glomales – or newly proposed phylum Glomeromycota
Include 130 species in 6 genera
All are obligate biotrophs
Form large spores that superficially resemble zygospores, but not formed from fusion of gametangia – azygospores or chlamydospores
Spore diameters range from 50 to 400 μm
Surrounded by plant cell membrane
Typically disintegrate after ca 2 weeks in plant cell and release nutrients
Thought to be site of nutrient exchange
Intercellular hyphae may also form large swellings – vesicles – at ends of hyphae or in
Typically rich in lipids & thought to be involved in storagetercalary
Arbuscularmycorrhizaeis not as well characterized as ectomycorrhizae.
Root is not altered in morphology – difficult to determine when roots are infected – must clear and stain followed by microscopic examination
Fungi are obligate biotrophs – cannot be grown in axenic culture – so difficult to conduct experiments
Fungus receives organic nutrition from plant – since they are biotrophs, don’t know what their requirements are
Fungus produces extramatricalhyphae that take up inorganic nutrients from soil – particularly P, may also supply N as they may produce proteinases
Increase drought tolerance – many common desert plants are heavily mycorrhizal
May also increase resistance to root pathogens
Effect of AM
Growth of plants that are infected better – particularly if soil is poor in nutrients
Roles of AM in Plant Phosphorus Nutrition
Interaction between pathways of Phosphorus uptake in AM roots have important implications for understanding and manipulating plant phosphorus acquisition.
The two pathways of P uptake in an AM root involve different regions of the root, different cell types, and different Pi transporters.
Possible signaling events in AM roots based on studies of Pi starvation in nonmycorrhizalplants.