The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions
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The Molecular Components of Nutrient Exchange in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) interactions.

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The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

The Molecular Components of Nutrient Exchange in ArbuscularMycorrhizal (AM) interactions.


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • Arbuscularmycorrhizas, or AM (formerly known as vesicular-arbuscularmycorrhizas, or VAM), are mycorrhizas whose hyphae enter into the plant cells, producing structures that are either balloon-like (vesicles) or dichotomously branching invaginations (arbuscules).


Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae

Vesicular Arbuscularmycorrhizae

  • VAM is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.

  • characterized by the formation of unique structures, arbuscules and vesicles by fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota (VAM fungi).


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • VAM fungi help plants to capture nutrients such as phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen and micronutrients from the soil. 

  • It is believed that the development of the arbuscularmycorrhizal symbiosis played a crucial role in the initial colonisation of land by plants and in the evolution of the vascular plants.


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • VAM – much less known about these associations than about ectomycorrhizae.

  • Appear to be the most common type of mycorrhizal association with respect to the number of plant species that form them

  • Found in species in all divisions of terrestrial plants – widely distributed in annuals, perennials, temperate and tropical trees, crop and wild plants

  • Estimated to occur on 300,000 plant spp.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi 

  • All are in the Zygomycota in the Glomales – or newly proposed phylum Glomeromycota

  • Include 130 species in 6 genera 

  • All are obligate biotrophs


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • Form large spores that superficially resemble zygospores, but not formed from fusion of gametangia – azygospores or chlamydospores

  • Spore diameters range from 50 to 400 μm


Arbuscules

Arbuscules

  • Surrounded by plant cell membrane

  • Typically disintegrate after ca 2 weeks in plant cell and release nutrients

  • Thought to be site of nutrient exchange


Vesicles

Vesicles

  • Intercellular hyphae may also form large swellings – vesicles – at ends of hyphae or in

  • Typically rich in lipids & thought to be involved in storagetercalary


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • Arbuscularmycorrhizaeis not as well characterized as ectomycorrhizae.

  • Root is not altered in morphology – difficult to determine when roots are infected – must clear and stain followed by microscopic examination

  • Fungi are obligate biotrophs – cannot be grown in axenic culture – so difficult to conduct experiments


Interaction

Interaction

  • Fungus receives organic nutrition from plant – since they are biotrophs, don’t know what their requirements are

  • Fungus produces extramatricalhyphae that take up inorganic nutrients from soil – particularly P, may also supply N as they may produce proteinases

  • Increase drought tolerance – many common desert plants are heavily mycorrhizal

  • May also increase resistance to root pathogens


Effect of am

Effect of AM

  • Growth of plants that are infected better – particularly if soil is poor in nutrients


Roles of am in plant phosphorus nutrition

Roles of AM in Plant Phosphorus Nutrition

  • Interaction between pathways of Phosphorus uptake in AM roots have important implications for understanding and manipulating plant phosphorus acquisition.


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • The two pathways of P uptake in an AM root involve different regions of the root, different cell types, and different Pi transporters.


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • Possible signaling events in AM roots based on studies of Pi starvation in nonmycorrhizalplants.


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