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Contd …. Growth and Developement. Dr Shreedhar Paudel 11/03/009. Assessment of physical growth. Evaluated by Body measurements Velocity of physical growth. Technique of Measurement. Weight Length- for babies under 2 years Height- for children more than 2 years of age

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contd growth and developement

Contd…. Growth and Developement

Dr ShreedharPaudel

11/03/009

assessment of physical growth
Assessment of physical growth
  • Evaluated by
    • Body measurements
    • Velocity of physical growth
technique of measurement
Technique of Measurement
  • Weight
  • Length- for babies under 2 years
  • Height- for children more than 2 years of age
  • Chest circumference
  • Head circumference
normal growth
Normal Growth
  • Weight: average birth weight- 3 kg
    • The new born loses about 10% of the body wt which is regained by the age of 10 days
    • Wt gain- 25 to 30 gm/day- first 3 months of life, after that 400 gm of wt gain per month up to 1 yr
    • Simple formula- 5 months- 2* birth wt

- 1 year- 3* birth wt

- 2 years- 4* birth wt

normal growth1
Normal Growth….
  • Length or height
    • 50 cm at birth
    • 60 cm at 3 months of age
    • 70 cm at 9 months
    • 75 cm at 1 year
    • 90 cm at 2 years
    • 100 cm at 4.5 years
normal growth2
Normal Growth
  • Head circumference
    • 32 to 35 cm at birth
    • 40 cm at 3 months of age
    • 45 cm at 1 year
    • 48 cm at 2 years
    • 52 cm at 12 years

(If the head circumference exceeds 1 cm in 2 weeks during the first 3 months of life, hydrocephalus should be suspected)

normal growth3
Normal Growth ….
  • Chest circumference

- 3 cm less than that of head circumference at birth

- Both are equal by the age of 1 year

- Chest circumference exceeds head circumference after 1 year of age

normal growth4
Normal Growth….
  • Velocity of growth
    • Increment in a unit time
    • Tool for early identification of factors affecting growth
    • Can also help in predicting the ultimate adult height
growth charts
Growth Charts
  • Show progressive changes in the height and weight of a child as the age advances
  • A good epidemiological tool for early diagnosis of malnutrition, occult infections and other adverse environmental factors
  • Percentile curves are plotted in a proper way
  • Normal range is mean ± 2 SD i.ebetween 3rd and 97th percentile curves
developmental milestones
Developmental milestones
  • Developmental milestones are physical or behavioral signs of development or maturation of infants and children.
  • Developmental milestones are tasks most children learn, or physical developments, that commonly appear in certain age ranges.
developmental milestones1
Developmental Milestones
  • Gross motor
    • 3 months Neck holding
    • 5 months Sitting with support
    • 8 months sitting without support
    • 9 months Standing with support
    • 10 months Walking with support
    • 11 months Crawling
    • 12 months Standing without support
    • 13 months Walking without support
    • 18 months Running
    • 24 months Walking upstairs
    • 36 months Riding tricycles
developmental milestones2
Developmental milestones
  • Fine motor
    • 4 months Grasps a ring when placed in hand
    • 5 months Reaches out to an object and holds it with both hands ( bidextrous grasp)
    • 7 months Holds an object with palm ( palmar grasp)
    • 9 months Holds small objects in between index finger and thumb ( pincer grasp)
developmental milestones3
Developmental Milestones
  • Language
    • 1 month Turns head to sound
    • 3 months Cooing
    • 6months Can say ‘ma’ ‘ba’(monosyllables)
    • 9 months Can say ‘mama’ ‘baba’ (bisyllables)
    • 12 months Two words with meaning
    • 18 months Ten words with meaning
    • 24 months Simple sentences
    • 36 months Telling a story
developmental milestones4
Developmental Milestones
  • Social
    • 2 months Social smile
    • 3 months Recognizing mother
    • 6 months Smiles at mirror images
    • 9 months Waves ‘bye- bye’
    • 12 months Plays a simple ball games
    • 36 months Knows gender
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