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Contd …. Growth and Developement. Dr Shreedhar Paudel 11/03/009. Assessment of physical growth. Evaluated by Body measurements Velocity of physical growth. Technique of Measurement. Weight Length- for babies under 2 years Height- for children more than 2 years of age

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Contd growth and developement

Contd…. Growth and Developement

Dr ShreedharPaudel

11/03/009


Assessment of physical growth
Assessment of physical growth

  • Evaluated by

    • Body measurements

    • Velocity of physical growth


Technique of measurement
Technique of Measurement

  • Weight

  • Length- for babies under 2 years

  • Height- for children more than 2 years of age

  • Chest circumference

  • Head circumference


Normal growth
Normal Growth

  • Weight: average birth weight- 3 kg

    • The new born loses about 10% of the body wt which is regained by the age of 10 days

    • Wt gain- 25 to 30 gm/day- first 3 months of life, after that 400 gm of wt gain per month up to 1 yr

    • Simple formula- 5 months- 2* birth wt

      - 1 year- 3* birth wt

      - 2 years- 4* birth wt


Normal growth1
Normal Growth….

  • Length or height

    • 50 cm at birth

    • 60 cm at 3 months of age

    • 70 cm at 9 months

    • 75 cm at 1 year

    • 90 cm at 2 years

    • 100 cm at 4.5 years


Normal growth2
Normal Growth

  • Head circumference

    • 32 to 35 cm at birth

    • 40 cm at 3 months of age

    • 45 cm at 1 year

    • 48 cm at 2 years

    • 52 cm at 12 years

      (If the head circumference exceeds 1 cm in 2 weeks during the first 3 months of life, hydrocephalus should be suspected)


Normal growth3
Normal Growth ….

  • Chest circumference

    - 3 cm less than that of head circumference at birth

    - Both are equal by the age of 1 year

    - Chest circumference exceeds head circumference after 1 year of age


Normal growth4
Normal Growth….

  • Velocity of growth

    • Increment in a unit time

    • Tool for early identification of factors affecting growth

    • Can also help in predicting the ultimate adult height


Growth charts
Growth Charts

  • Show progressive changes in the height and weight of a child as the age advances

  • A good epidemiological tool for early diagnosis of malnutrition, occult infections and other adverse environmental factors

  • Percentile curves are plotted in a proper way

  • Normal range is mean ± 2 SD i.ebetween 3rd and 97th percentile curves


Developmental milestones
Developmental milestones

  • Developmental milestones are physical or behavioral signs of development or maturation of infants and children.

  • Developmental milestones are tasks most children learn, or physical developments, that commonly appear in certain age ranges.


Developmental milestones1
Developmental Milestones

  • Gross motor

    • 3 months Neck holding

    • 5 months Sitting with support

    • 8 months sitting without support

    • 9 months Standing with support

    • 10 months Walking with support

    • 11 months Crawling

    • 12 months Standing without support

    • 13 months Walking without support

    • 18 months Running

    • 24 months Walking upstairs

    • 36 months Riding tricycles


Developmental milestones2
Developmental milestones

  • Fine motor

    • 4 months Grasps a ring when placed in hand

    • 5 months Reaches out to an object and holds it with both hands ( bidextrous grasp)

    • 7 months Holds an object with palm ( palmar grasp)

    • 9 months Holds small objects in between index finger and thumb ( pincer grasp)


Developmental milestones3
Developmental Milestones

  • Language

    • 1 month Turns head to sound

    • 3 months Cooing

    • 6months Can say ‘ma’ ‘ba’(monosyllables)

    • 9 months Can say ‘mama’ ‘baba’ (bisyllables)

    • 12 months Two words with meaning

    • 18 months Ten words with meaning

    • 24 months Simple sentences

    • 36 months Telling a story


Developmental milestones4
Developmental Milestones

  • Social

    • 2 months Social smile

    • 3 months Recognizing mother

    • 6 months Smiles at mirror images

    • 9 months Waves ‘bye- bye’

    • 12 months Plays a simple ball games

    • 36 months Knows gender


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