AFRICA: Atlas of Our Changing Environment
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AFRICA: Atlas of Our Changing Environment. Transboundary Environmental Issues. Transboundary Ecosystems and Protected Areas The Congo Basin Forests Maasai Mara – Serengeti Protected Areas in East Africa W-Arly-Pendjari Parks Complex The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

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AFRICA: Atlas of Our Changing Environment

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Africa atlas of our changing environment

AFRICA: Atlas of Our Changing Environment


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Transboundary Environmental Issues

  • Transboundary Ecosystems and Protected Areas

  • The Congo Basin Forests

  • Maasai Mara – Serengeti Protected Areas in East Africa

  • W-Arly-Pendjari Parks Complex

  • The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

  • Mountain Gorilla Conservation in the Virunga Heartland

  • Southern Sudan: A Survival Surprise

  • Transboundary Water Resources

  • Lake Victoria

  • Lake Chad

  • Okavango

  • Transboundary Movement of People

  • Dadaab Refugee Camp

  • The Parrot’s Beak Region

  • Darfur Conflict

  • Transboundary Movement of Pollutants

  • Dust storms

  • Aerosols

  • Fires

  • Carbon monoxide pollution


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Transboundary Environmental Issues

Transboundary Ecosystems and Protected Areas

Transboundary Water Resources

Transboundary Movement of People

Transboundary Movement of Pollutants

Between 1990 and 2004 a few African countries expanded their protected area networks, furthering their progress towards the MDG target

There are 15 principal lakes, 24 main watersheds and 38 aquifer systems that cross the political boundaries of two or more countries in Africa

Africa is one the world’s largest dust-producing regions and the Bodélé Depression is one of its largest sources of airborne dust

UNHCR estimates that there were 2.4 million refugees in Africa at the end of 2006


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Major migratory bird routes of the world

Transboundary Environmental Issues

Migratory birds and other migratory animals are a significant component of transboundary environmental resources

The map below illustrates global migratory bird routes and shows that Africa has the highest concentration of such routes


Africa atlas of our changing environment

The Congo Basin Forests

Congo Basin forests

form a transboundary ecosystem shared by

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • About 60 per cent of the total forest area in the Congo Basin

    is considered to be industrially exploitable

  • The transboundary nature of this ecosystem calls for a multinational approach for the conservation and sustainable use of its resources


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Maasai Mara – Serengeti Protected Areas in East Africa

Kenya’s Maasai Mara Game Reserve and United Republic of Tanzania’s Serengeti National Park are two neighboring transboundary protected areas

Every year, herds of wildebeest, zebra, and other herbivores migrate between the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya.

A pair of images comparing green vegetation in 2005 to the parched, brown

landscape in 2006


Africa atlas of our changing environment

The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) Parks Complex straddles the countries

of Benin, Burkina Faso, and Niger, and is one of the largest contiguous protected areas in Africa

W-Arly-Pendjari Parks Complex &

The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP) is Africa’s largest transboundary protected area that spreads through Mozambique, South Africa and

Zimbabwe


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Mountain Gorilla

Conservation in the

Virunga Heartland

Southern Sudan: A Survival Surprise

The first aerial survey of southern Sudan in 25 years revealed that vast migrating herds have managed to survive over 20 years of civil war

The Virunga Heartland in the central Albertine Rift region of east-central Africa spans the borders of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda

Transboundary Ecosystems and Protected Areas


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Transboundary Water Resources

  • Transboundary Water Resources

  • Lake Victoria: Africa’s Largest Freshwater Lake

  • Lake Chad: Africa’s Shrinking Lake

  • Okavango: The World’s Largest Inland Delta


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Lake Victoria: Africa’s Largest Freshwater Lake

  • Since December 2005, water levels dropped to alarmingly low levels

  • Current water levels in Lake Victoria are below normal and the lowest level since September 1961

  • The lake is a crucial resource to the more than 30 million people

  • Lake area is the most densely populated rural region in the world


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria

These images show water hyacinth infestation and control of such invasive species

  • 1995: Image shows several water-hyacinth-choked bays (yellow arrows)

  • 2001: A visible reduction of Water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Lake Victoria: Population Growth

  • The population growth around 100 km buffer zone of the Lake Victoria

  • Population growth around Lake Victoria, East Africa, is the highest in Africa


Africa atlas of our changing environment

17 Dec 2005

18 Dec 2006

Lake Victoria’s Winam Gulf

Winam Gulf is a large arm of Lake Victoria that extends east into Kenya

This images show increased

siltation and suspended sediments in the Winam Gulf waters between 8 March 1986 and 5 February 2001

water hyacinth

Images showing water hyacinth choked bays


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Transboundary Water Resources

Lake Victoria: Africa’s Largest Freshwater Lake

Lake Victoria is world’s fastest growing rural area

Population growth around Lake Victoria vs. Africa

Persons/km2


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Lake Chad: Africa’s Shrinking Lake

Lake Chad drainage basin

The Lake Chad drainage basin, a 2 500 000 km² hydrologically closed catchment, extends to eight countries: Algeria, Libyan

Arab Jamahiriya, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon, and Nigeria

Shrinking of Lake Chad


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Lake Chad: Africa’s Shrinking Lake

Persistent droughts and increased agricultural irrigation have reduced the lake’s extent in the past 35 years to one-tenth of its former size

  • 1972: Larger lake surface area is visible in this image

  • 2001: Impact of drought displays a shrunken lake, comparatively much smaller surface area than in 1972 image

  • The 2007 image shows significant improvement over previous years


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Okavango: The World’s Largest Inland Delta

Map of the catchment area of the Okavango Delta

The map shows the percentage of time between 1985 and 2000 that areas of the delta were inundated

Dark blue areas indicate permanently inundated regions while lighter blue to white areas represent less inundation time

The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Swamp) is a globally renowned Ramsar Wetland Site and the world’s largest inland delta


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Dadaab Refugee Camp

Ifo, Dagahaley, and Hagadera refugee camps are located in

Dadaab town in the North Eastern Province of Kenya, near the border with Somalia

Dagahaley Camp

1987: Shows a fairly intact landscape dominated by shrub vegetation that is characteristic of the semiarid area

Ifo Camp

2000: The Ifo, Dagahaley, and Hagadera refugee camps stand out distinctly, revealing the presence and impact of a high concentration of over 100 000 refugees on the environment

Hagadera Camp


Africa atlas of our changing environment

The Parrot’s Beak Region

“Parrot’s Beak” is a small strip of land belonging to Guinea situated between Sierra Leone and Liberia

1974: Prior to the influx of refugees small flecks of light green scattered throughout the deep-green forest of the Parrot’s Beak region represent compounds of villages surrounded by agricultural plots

2002: Contrast this with the light green colour which is the result of deforestation where refugees

have settled


Africa atlas of our changing environment

2006

2004

Darfur Conflict

Bir Kedouas is a two square kilometre settlement within Chad,

just west of Sudan’s Darfur region

Changes in Bir Kedouas, Chad, between 2004 and 2006

Glimpses of the camp area


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Bodele Depression

Dust storms in the Bodele Depression

Based on satellite data and computer models, scientists estimate that Saharan dust storms generate an average of about 0.7 million metric tonnes of dust during winter days

02 Jan 2007


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Aerosol Optical Depth

  • This image shows the annual mean aerosol optical depth for 2006

  • Gray zones on the map represent areas were aerosol data could not be collected


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Fires

Seasonal Pattern of Wildland Fires

This series of images shows the seasonal pattern of wildland fires in Africa during

2005

This image shows the global distribution of fires, represented by red dots. Fire distribution in Africa indicates the highest biomass burning in the world (images based on night-time measurements).


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Smoke Spreading From Greece to Africa

26 Aug 2007

Fires burning in southwestern Greece in August 2007 released aerosols that winds carried to Africa

This 2007 image shows actively burning fires in red—a line of fires stretches along the western coast of Greece’s Peloponnesus Peninsula


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Jul, Aug, Sep (2000 – 2004)

Jan, Feb, Mar (2000 – 2004)

Apr, May, Jun (2000 – 2004)

Oct, Nov, Dec (2000 – 2004)

Carbon monoxide pollution

This series of images shows a record of global CO production from January 2000 through December 2004


Africa atlas of our changing environment

A global map of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the troposphere in 2003

  • Image shows the locations of high levels of nitrogen dioxide worldwide

  • High concentrations of NO2 tend to be associated with large urban or industrial Areas

  • In Africa, NO2 concentrations are particularly high over coal-fired power stations in South Africa

  • Lower, but widespread, concentrations of the gas—produced by biomass


Africa atlas of our changing environment

Thank You!

For more information and free download go to: http://www.na.unep.net/AfricaAtlas/

To purchase go to:

http://www.earthprint.com/


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