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The Future of GIS. What is the state of geospatial computing today? What are the issues today? What will geospatial computing be like in 2025? What issues will be of concern then?. 2005 and 2025. Computing issues in 2005. Building the cyberinfrastructure The digital divide

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The Future of GIS


What is the state of geospatial computing today?

What are the issues today?

What will geospatial computing be like in 2025?

What issues will be of concern then?

2005 and 2025


Computing issues in 2005

  • Building the cyberinfrastructure

  • The digital divide

  • The “where” of computing

  • User interfaces: The end of GUIs, WIMPs, and the desktop

  • Wireless internet

  • Who owns software

  • Too much data


Geographic information technology in 2005

  • Countering industry trends, LBS

  • GPS mature, GLONASS, Galileo, GPS II, indoor?

  • Geobrowser era, and VGI

  • Mobile GIS

  • Cellular phones and location technology

  • New generation of space imaging

  • Interoperability and standards

  • The data fire hose


What will the issues be in 2025?


Cyberinfrastructure

  • aka Grid computing

  • NSF Vision for next era of computing

  • “ integrated suite of computational engines, mass storage, networks, digital libraries and databases, sensors, software and services” (NSF, 2003).

  • Can include human users and the user interface

  • NSF (2003) Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure: Report of the National Science Foundation Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure: Atkins report.


Forecast: Cyberinfrastructure vision

  • Services available on demand

  • Independence of source

  • “The computer is the network”


Geospatial elements of the GRID: 1. GPS

Source: U. Minnesota IVS Lab


Geospatial elements of the GRID: 1. Portability


Geospatial elements of the GRID: Sensor webs


Forecast: Wearable GIS

  • We will wear our computers, not sit in front of them


Wearable GIS

http://www.itmedia.co.jp/broadband/0309/18


UCSB Battuta project


Field Test Prototype: YAH, Map view, text off, perspective on


Field Test Prototype: YAH, Image view, text off, perspective on


Forecast : No more data problems

  • Digital earth will exist

  • It will be achieved by VGI, not top-down

  • There will be many and specialized geobrowsers

  • Open standards rule


Digital Earth

  • Visionary concept: Holistic perspective

  • Popularized by former US VP Al Gore

  • Virtual and 3-D representation of the Earth

  • Spatially referenced

  • Connected with digital knowledge archives

  • Vast amounts of scientific, natural, and cultural information

  • “to describe and understand the Earth, its systems, and human activities. “


Mary Baker Eddy Library for the Betterment of Humanity 1935


Geoscope

“This giant, 200-foot diameter sphere will be a miniature earth -- the most accurate global representation of our planet ever to be realized." "This…Geoscope would make it possible for humans to identify the true scale of themselves and their activities on this planet. Humans could thus comprehend much more readily that their personal survival problems related intimately to all humanity's survival." — R. Buckminster Fuller, 1962

Figure The Geoscope, as drawn by Tom Shannon, for the Buckminster Fuller Institute


Gore’s Earth in the Balance (1992)

“A multi-resolution, three dimensional

representation of the planet, into which we can embed vast quantities of geo-referenced data.”


Consensus definition 1999

  • Digital Earth will be a virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural information gathered about the Earth.(Consensus definition adopted at 2nd interagency workshop, 1999 Sept 23)


World wide participation


The NASA web site


Is DE Google Earth?

  • Keyhole Earthviewer. In-Q-tel funding, Dual use

  • Google Maps

  • Google buys Keyhole (Oct. 2004)

  • Google Earth (June 2005)

  • Google Earth Community added

  • Partnership with National Geographic


NO, beacuse

  • DE = Geobrowser(s) + Global data

  • DE covers all time scales

  • Possibly several browsers

    • NASA Worldwind (2003)

    • GeoFusion GeoPlayer (2001)

    • ESRI ArcGlobe


NASA Worldwind


So what about data? Global maps

  • Crosses boundary between

    • MAPS

    • IMAGERY

    • TOPONYMY


We’ve been there before: Global Maps

  • International Millionth Map of the World

  • VMAP0 (DCW)

  • GlobalMap


Millionth Map of the World Project

  • German Geographer Albrecht Penck (1858-1945) proponent of consistent and accurate maps of all earth, including its natural and human features.

  • Penck proposed a worldwide system of maps at the Fifth International Geographical Conference in 1891.

  • International Map of the World, would consist of 2500 individual maps, each at a scale of 1:1,000,000

  • Each four degrees of latitude and six degrees of longitude.

  • 1913, Penck's idea came to fruition, international conference established standards for the maps, aka Millionth Map of the World

  • The 1913 standards established that maps would use the local form of each place name in the Roman alphabet


Australia Series (Part)


International Map of the World

  • Legend to be printed in English and French , title of the maps in French, Carte Internationale du Monde au 1 000 000

  • "Central Bureau of the Map of the World" was established in Great Britain's Ordnance Survey.

  • 36 countries involved, but by World War I only eight maps produced.

  • 1921, American Geographic Society took on Central and South America.

  • 1921 to 1946 to produce 107 maps

  • 1930s, 405 maps but only half adhered to standards

  • World War II, Bureau offices, archives and data destroyed by bombing.

  • 1953 United Nations took control

  • By the 1980s, only about 800 to 1000 total maps had been created

  • Project terminated incomplete


Global Map: VMAP0 plus


Massive amounts of data: LU


Digital Earth Issues Today

  • Linking text, maps and imagery: Fusion

  • Making maps and images text searchable

  • Data structures

  • Global grids


Colorado State system


New global/spatial grids: QTM


Go2 Grids

38:53:22.08N 077:02:06.86W

US.DC.WAS.54.18.28.83.11

US.CA.SBA.UCSB.UCEN


Forecast: Interfaces

  • GUI and WIMP will be dead

  • Long live perceptual and multimodal interfaces


Gesture recognition and AR

Images/Movies courtesy of Mathias Kolsh, UCSB


Computing issues in 2025

  • Network monitors itself, who sees?

  • Spyware and security vs Personal privacy

  • Who pays for services?

  • Who are the digit police?

  • Competing solutions and liability

  • The limits of accuracy

  • Tractability envelope: New methods

  • Simulation is everywhere, for everything


Geospatial issues in 2025

  • Who owns your lifeline? (Huisman and Forer, 1998; students in Auckland)


Forecast: Geospatial privacy

  • You are where you are!

  • Your geospatial data rights will be under threat


The threat from commerce

“I dread the day when I am woken from a sound sleep by a noisy, flashing advertisement projected on my retina urging me to download a new free Web-browser, one that I cannot turn off without mentally focusing on a dark grey ‘Decline’ button hovering at the far range of my peripheral vision. “(Clarke, 1999).


Loss of anonymity


The threat from government

  • FOIA vs. “Mapping the Risks”

  • Geoslavery

  • Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems "You have no privacy - get over it."


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