Amino Acid Biosynthesis

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Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids. Essential (10)ArginineHistidineIsoleucineLeucineLysineMethioninePhenylalanineThreonineTryptophanValine. Non-essentialAlanineAsparagineAspartateCysteineGlutamateGlutamineGlycineProlineSerineTyrosine. Importance of Balanced Diet. Milk: prope
Amino Acid Biosynthesis

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1. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Introduction

2. Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids Essential (10) Arginine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine Non-essential Alanine Asparagine Aspartate Cysteine Glutamate Glutamine Glycine Proline Serine Tyrosine

3. Importance of Balanced Diet Milk: proper balance of amino acids Beans: lysine rich; methionine poor Wheat: methionine rich; lysine poor Bioengineered Wheat: high lysine content

4. Carbon Acquisition Photosynthesis

5. Nitrogen Acquisition Nitrogen Fixation Nitrate Assimilation Ammonium Assimilation

6. Nitrogen Fixation (few strains of bacteria)

7. Nitrifying Bacteria

8. Nitrate Assimilation (Green plants, some fungi and bacteria)

9. Ammonium Assimilation (Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase)

10. Ammonium Assimilation (Biosynthetic Glutamate Dehydrogenase)

11. Ammonium Assimilation (Glutamine Synthetase)

12. Mechanism of Glutamine Synthetase

13. Microbial Nitrogen Acquisition (Metabolic Sources of Organic Nitrogen) Glutamate (90%) Amino Acids (90%) Purines (50%) Pyrimidines (50%) Glutamine (10%) Amino Acids Amino Sugars NAD+ PABA Purines (50%) Pyrimidines (50%)

14. Microbial Ammonium Assimilation High [NH3] ?Biosynthetic? Glutamate Dehydrogenase Glutamine Synthetase Low [NH3] Glutamine Synthetase Glutamate Synthase (Glutamate Oxoglutarate Aminotransferase, GOGAT)

15. Microbial Ammonium Assimilation (High NH3)

16. Microbial Ammonium Assimilation (Low NH3)

17. Role of Glutamate (Nitrogen Donor)

18. Role of Glutamine (Nitrogen Donor)

19. Specific Products of Glutamine Histidine Tryptophan Carbamyl Phosphate (CPSII) Glucosamine ATP CTP

20. Regulation of Glutamine Synthetase

21. Pathways of Nitrogen Incorporation

22. Feedback Inhibition (Nitrogen-sufficient Conditions) Products Histidine Tryptophan Carbamyl-P Glucosamine ATP CTP Nitrogen Status Alanine Serine Glycine

23. Modulation of Enzyme Activity Sensitivity to [NH3] Importance of Glutamine/a-ketoglutarate Ratio

24. Control of Enzyme Activity (Escherichia coli Enzyme)

25. Control of Gene Expression

26. Control of Gene Expression (NtrC Transcription Factor)

27. Nitrogen Sufficiency (Rich) (Low Expression of Glutamine Synthesis) Basal expression from P1 (weak promoter) Termination at rho-independent terminator Basal expression from Pinternal RNA polymerase (s70)

28. Control of Gene Expression (Nitrogen Sufficiency)

29. Nitrogen Limitation (Ammonia Assimilation = High Expression) Expression from P2 (strong promoter) Requires NtrC?P (binds to enhancer) RNA polymerase (s54) Reads through terminator Upregulation of ntrB and ntrC

30. Control of Gene Expression (Nitrogen Limitation)

31. Two Component Sensor-Response Regulator System NtrB and NtrC

32. Two Component Sensor-Response Regulator Systems Autokinase Sensor Proteins (NtrB) (autophosphorylation of histidine residue) Sensor domain Transmitter domain (C-terminus) Response Regulators (NtrC) N-terminal receiver domain Cross-regulation

33. NtrC

34. Other NtrC-Sensitive Operons Direct effect of NtrC-P (e.g. hut operon) Indirect effect of NtrC-P

35. Conclusion Complex regulation of glutamine synthetase confirms important role in nitrogen metabolism

36. Biosynthesis of Non-essential Amino Acids Simple Pathways

37. Alanine Biosynthesis

38. Aspartate and Asparagine Biosynthesis

39. Glutamate and Glutamine Biosynthesis

40. Proline Biosynthesis

41. Arginine Biosynthesis (N-Acetylglutamate Synthase)

42. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (Acetylglutamate Kinase)

43. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (N-Acetyl-g-glutamyl-P Reductase)

44. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (N-Acetylornithine g-Aminotransferase)

45. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (Acetylornithine Deacetylase)

46. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (Acetylornithine:Glutamate Acetyltransferase)

47. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (Ornithine Transcarbamylase)

48. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (Argininosuccinate Synthetase)

49. Arginine Biosynthesis (continued) (Argininosuccinase)

50. Arginine Metabolism in Microorganisms (Linear Biosynthetic Pathway)

51. Arginine Metabolism in Microorganisms (Cyclic Biosynthetic Pathway)

52. Arginine Metabolism in Microorganisms (Polyamines)

53. Arginine Catabolism (Microorganisms)

54. Urea Metabolism (Microorganisms)

55. Regulation of Arginine Metabolism

56. Arginine Metabolism in Microorganisms (Linear Biosynthetic Pathway)

57. Arginine Metabolism in Microorganisms (Cyclic Biosynthetic Pathway)

58. Arginine Metabolism in Microorganisms (Polyamines)

59. Arginine Metabolism in Microorganisms (Catabolism)

60. Urea Metabolism (Microorganisms)


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