Compound and derived lipids
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Compound and Derived Lipids. Glycerophospholipids. Glycerophospholipids are: The most abundant lipids in cell membranes. Composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, phosphate and an amino alcohol . Fatty acid. Glycerol. Fatty acid. PO 4. Amino alcohol. Phospholipids. Polar Head.

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Compound and Derived Lipids

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Compound and derived lipids

Compound and Derived Lipids


Glycerophospholipids

Glycerophospholipids

Glycerophospholipidsare:

  • The most abundant lipids in cell membranes.

  • Composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, phosphate and an amino alcohol.

Fatty acid

Glycerol

Fatty acid

PO4

Amino

alcohol


Phospholipids

Phospholipids

PolarHead

Glycerol

Fatty Acid Tails

Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic


Polarity of glycerophospholipids

Polarity of Glycerophospholipids

  • A glycerophospholipid has polar and nonpolar regions.


Lecithin and cephalin

Lecithin and Cephalin

Lecithin and cephalinare glycerophospholipids:

  • Abundant in brain and nerve tissues.

  • Found in egg yolk, wheat germ, and yeast.


Sphingolipids

Sphingolipids

  • Sphingolipids are phospholipids that have an amide bond between a fatty acid and sphingosine, an 18-carbon alcohol.


Glycosphingolipids

Glycosphingolipids

  • Glycosphingolipids (cerebrosides and gangliosides) contain monosaccharides bonded to the –OH of sphingosine by a glycosidic bond.

  • Cerebrosides contain only one monosaccharide.


Gangliosides

Gangliosides

  • Gangliosidesare similar to cerebrosides, but contain two or more monosaccharides.


Lipid diseases lipidoses

Lipid Diseases (Lipidoses)

  • In many lipid diseases, the deficiency of an enzyme causes the accumulation of glycolipids.


Steroids

Steroids

Steroids are:

  • Lipids containing the steroid nucleus, which is a fused structure of four rings.

  • Found in cholesterol, bile salts, hormones, and vitamin D.

steroid nucleus


Steroids1

Steroids

  • Complex ring forms

  • Some hormones

  • Cholesterol

    • Natural substance

    • Found in membranes

    • Gives membranes natural flexibility


Steroids2

Estradiol

Testosterone

Steroids

Cholesterol


Cholesterol

Cholesterol

  • The most abundant steroid in the body.

  • Contains 27 carbon atoms.

  • At C3 there is a –OH group; so it is an alcohol.

  • Composed of the steroid nucleus with methyl groups, an alkyl chain, and a hydroxyl group attached.

  • Precursor for adrenal corticosteroids, vitamin D and bile acids


Cholesterol in foods

Cholesterol in Foods

Cholesterol:

  • Is considered elevated if plasma cholesterol exceeds 200-220 mg/dL.

  • Is synthesized in the liver and obtained from foods.

100 g

1

100 g

100 g

100 g

100 g

100 g

1 tablespoon

1 cup

1 cup

1 tablespoon


Lipoproteins

Lipoproteins

  • Combine lipids with proteins and phospholipids.

  • Are soluble in water because the surface consists of polar lipids.


Types of lipoproteins

Types of Lipoproteins

Lipoproteins:

  • Differ in density, composition, and function.

  • Include low-density lipoprotein (LDLs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDLs).


Transport of lipoproteins in the body

Transport of Lipoproteins in the Body


Bile salts

Bile Salts

  • Are synthesized from cholesterol and stored in the gall bladder.

  • Emulsify fats and oils to give a greater surface area for lipid digesting enzymes.


Steroid hormones

Steroid Hormones

Steroid hormones:

  • Are produced from cholesterol.

  • Include sex hormones such as androgens (testosterone) in males and estrogens (estradiol) in females


Compound and derived lipids

Estradiol

Testosterone


Adrenal corticosteroids

Adrenal Corticosteroids

Steroid hormones called adrenal corticosteroids:

  • Are produced by the adrenal glands located on the top of each kidney.

  • Includealdosterone, which regulates electrolytes and water balance by the kidneys.

  • Include cortisone, a glucocorticoid, which increases blood glucose level and stimulates the synthesis of glycogen in the liver.


Adrenal corticosteroids1

Adrenal Corticosteroids


Lipid profile

Lipid Profile

  • Lipid profile includes:

    1)Total lipids

    2)Triglycerides

    3) Cholesterol

    4) HDL

    5) LDL

  • These tests must be carried out after 12-15 hrs. fasting due the high molecular weight of lipid molecules and the prolonged digestion and metabolism.


Phospholipids1

Phospholipids

Polar group


Phospholipid bilayer

Phospholipid Bilayer


Micelles

Micelles


A composite cell

A Composite Cell

Phospholipid bilayer

Flagellum

Nucleus

Chromatin

Nuclear envelope

Ribosomes

Nucleolus

Cell membrane

Basal body

Microtubules

Rough

Endoplasmic

reticulum

Centrioles

Mitochondrion

Smooth

Endoplasmic

reticulum

  • Major parts include:

    • Nucleus

    • Cytoplasm

    • Cell membrane

Microvilli

Secretory

vesicles

Cilia

Golgi

apparatus

Microtubule

Microtubules

ysosomes

L


Cell membranes

Cell Membranes

Cell membranes:

  • Separate cellular contents from the external environment.

  • Consist of a lipid bilayer made of two rows of phospholipids.

  • Have an inner portion made of the nonpolar tails of phospholipids with the polar heads at the outer and inner surfaces.


Cell membrane

Cell Membrane

Extracellular side

of membrane

Fibrous protein

Glycolipid

Carbohydrate

Glycoprotein

“Heads” of

phospholipid

Double

layer of

Phospholipid

molecules

“Tails” of

phospholipid

Cell membrane

Cell membrane

Hydrophobic

fatty acid

“tail”

Globular

protein

Cholesterol

molecules

Hydrophilic

Phosphate

“head”

Cytoplasmic side

of membrane


Fluid mosaic model of cell membranes

Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membranes

  • The lipid bilayer contains proteins, carbohydrates, and cholesterol.

  • The unsaturated fatty acids make cell membranes fluid-like rather than rigid.

  • Proteins and carbohydrates on the outer surface communicate with hormones and neurotransmitters.


Transport through cell membranes

Transport Through Cell Membranes

  • Diffusion (passive transport) moves particles from a higher to a lower concentration.

  • Facilitated transport uses protein channels to increase the rate of diffusion.

  • Active transport moves ions against a concentration gradient.


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