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The Reformation Spreads. Explosion of Protestants!. During the reformation, hundreds of new protestant groups formed. Calvinists – founded by John Calvin and believed in Predestination. Predestination = the idea that god had long ago determined who would gain salvation.

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Explosion of protestants
Explosion of Protestants!

  • During the reformation, hundreds of new protestant groups formed.

    • Calvinists – founded by John Calvin and believed in Predestination.

      • Predestination = the idea that god had long ago determined who would gain salvation.

  • Anabaptists were a more radical protestant group.

    • Did not believe in baptizing infants.

    • Tried to speed up the coming of God’s day of judgment through violent means.

    • Believed in religious toleration and a separation of church and state.

  • Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish are all related to the Anabaptists.


The english reformation
The English Reformation

  • The English Reformation was the work of King Henry VIII of England.

  • Henry VIII wanted to annul (cancel) his marriage to his 1st wife Catherine of Aragon.

    • No heir = big problem for Henry VIII

    • Pope said NO!

  • Because Henry VIII could not annul his marriage, he decided to create his own church called the Church of England.

    • Henry appointed Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of his church.

    • Cranmer annulled Henry’s marriage.


Henry viii s wives
Henry VIII’s Wives

  • After his annulment from Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII married 5 more times!!

    • Anne Boleyn

      • Daughter = Elizabeth I

      • No son; beheaded

    • Jane Seymour

      • Son = Edward VI

      • Dies from complications

    • Anne of Cleves

      • Too ugly; divorce

    • Catherine Howard

      • Executed

    • Catherine Parr

      • Out lives Henry VIII


The church of england
The Church of England

  • Act of Supremacy (1534) –Henry became the supreme head on Earth of the church of England.

    • People that did not like this were beheaded!!

  • Henry did not change the church much – he kept most Catholic forms of worship.

  • Henry’s son, Edward VI, made England a protestant country.

    • Parliament passed Protestant Reforms.

    • Thomas Cranmer wrote the Book of Common Prayer – used in church services.


Mary and elizabeth
Mary and Elizabeth

  • “Bloody Mary”

    • Mary Tudor became Queen after Edward VI died in his teens

    • Wanted to return England to Catholic Church.

    • Hundreds of protestants were burned at the stake

  • Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603)

    • Elizabethan Settlement – were a series of reforms that strengthened the Church of England.

      • Compromise (middle ground) between Protestant and catholic policies.

      • Ended religious persecution in England.


The catholic reformation
The Catholic Reformation

  • Catholic Reformation = A new reform movement within the Catholic church that tried to stop church abuses.

    • Led by Pope Paul III

    • Pope tried to revive the moral authority of the church.

  • Council of Trent (1545) – called by Pope Paul III and reaffirmed the traditional Catholic views that Protestants had challenged.

    • Salvation comes through faith and good works

    • Bible is a major source of religious truth


The catholic reformation1
The Catholic Reformation

  • Major components of the Catholic Reformation:

    • Changed Church Practices

      • Harsh penalties for “worldliness” and corruption

    • Strengthen the Inquisition

      • Inquisition = church court created during the Middle Ages

      • Used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy.

      • Created the Index of Forbidden Books – people were not allowed to read these books.

    • Create Jesuits

      • Founded by Ignatius of Loyola

      • Helped bolster Catholicism


Legacy of the catholic reformation
Legacy of the Catholic Reformation

  • Catholic reformers helped reduce church abuses.

  • Disagreements about religion led to religious Wars

    • French Wars of Religion (1560s)

  • Europe still remains divided over different interpretations of Christianity today!

    • Violent fighting between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.


Witches
Witches!

  • Both Catholics and Protestants fostered intolerance and persecuted people they thought were witches and Jews.

  • Witch hunts

    • Thousands of women died as victims of witch hunts

    • Usually widowed women

    • Most lived in German sates, Switzerland, and France.

    • Also in Salem Massachusetts!

  • Jewish Persecution

    • Forced to live in ghettos –separate part of city.


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