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The Reformation Spreads. Explosion of Protestants!. During the reformation, hundreds of new protestant groups formed. Calvinists – founded by John Calvin and believed in Predestination. Predestination = the idea that god had long ago determined who would gain salvation.

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explosion of protestants
Explosion of Protestants!
  • During the reformation, hundreds of new protestant groups formed.
    • Calvinists – founded by John Calvin and believed in Predestination.
      • Predestination = the idea that god had long ago determined who would gain salvation.
  • Anabaptists were a more radical protestant group.
    • Did not believe in baptizing infants.
    • Tried to speed up the coming of God’s day of judgment through violent means.
    • Believed in religious toleration and a separation of church and state.
  • Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish are all related to the Anabaptists.
the english reformation
The English Reformation
  • The English Reformation was the work of King Henry VIII of England.
  • Henry VIII wanted to annul (cancel) his marriage to his 1st wife Catherine of Aragon.
    • No heir = big problem for Henry VIII
    • Pope said NO!
  • Because Henry VIII could not annul his marriage, he decided to create his own church called the Church of England.
    • Henry appointed Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of his church.
    • Cranmer annulled Henry’s marriage.
henry viii s wives
Henry VIII’s Wives
  • After his annulment from Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII married 5 more times!!
    • Anne Boleyn
      • Daughter = Elizabeth I
      • No son; beheaded
    • Jane Seymour
      • Son = Edward VI
      • Dies from complications
    • Anne of Cleves
      • Too ugly; divorce
    • Catherine Howard
      • Executed
    • Catherine Parr
      • Out lives Henry VIII
the church of england
The Church of England
  • Act of Supremacy (1534) –Henry became the supreme head on Earth of the church of England.
    • People that did not like this were beheaded!!
  • Henry did not change the church much – he kept most Catholic forms of worship.
  • Henry’s son, Edward VI, made England a protestant country.
    • Parliament passed Protestant Reforms.
    • Thomas Cranmer wrote the Book of Common Prayer – used in church services.
mary and elizabeth
Mary and Elizabeth
  • “Bloody Mary”
    • Mary Tudor became Queen after Edward VI died in his teens
    • Wanted to return England to Catholic Church.
    • Hundreds of protestants were burned at the stake
  • Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603)
    • Elizabethan Settlement – were a series of reforms that strengthened the Church of England.
      • Compromise (middle ground) between Protestant and catholic policies.
      • Ended religious persecution in England.
the catholic reformation
The Catholic Reformation
  • Catholic Reformation = A new reform movement within the Catholic church that tried to stop church abuses.
    • Led by Pope Paul III
    • Pope tried to revive the moral authority of the church.
  • Council of Trent (1545) – called by Pope Paul III and reaffirmed the traditional Catholic views that Protestants had challenged.
    • Salvation comes through faith and good works
    • Bible is a major source of religious truth
the catholic reformation1
The Catholic Reformation
  • Major components of the Catholic Reformation:
    • Changed Church Practices
      • Harsh penalties for “worldliness” and corruption
    • Strengthen the Inquisition
      • Inquisition = church court created during the Middle Ages
      • Used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy.
      • Created the Index of Forbidden Books – people were not allowed to read these books.
    • Create Jesuits
      • Founded by Ignatius of Loyola
      • Helped bolster Catholicism
legacy of the catholic reformation
Legacy of the Catholic Reformation
  • Catholic reformers helped reduce church abuses.
  • Disagreements about religion led to religious Wars
    • French Wars of Religion (1560s)
  • Europe still remains divided over different interpretations of Christianity today!
    • Violent fighting between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.
  • Both Catholics and Protestants fostered intolerance and persecuted people they thought were witches and Jews.
  • Witch hunts
    • Thousands of women died as victims of witch hunts
    • Usually widowed women
    • Most lived in German sates, Switzerland, and France.
    • Also in Salem Massachusetts!
  • Jewish Persecution
    • Forced to live in ghettos –separate part of city.