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Biology. Chapter 7 Section 3. Key Ideas. What makes cells and organisms different? How are cells organized in a complex multicellular organism? What makes an organism truly multicellular?. Diversity in Cells. Prokaryotes are always unicellular and limited in size.

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Chapter 7 Section 3

key ideas
Key Ideas
  • What makes cells and organisms different?
  • How are cells organized in a complex multicellular organism?
  • What makes an organism truly multicellular?
diversity in cells
Diversity in Cells
  • Prokaryotes are always unicellular and limited in size.
  • Eukaryotes are often larger and can be either unicellular or multicellular.
  • Different organelles and features of cells enable organisms to function in unique ways in different environments.
diversity in prokaryotes
Diversity in Prokaryotes
  • They can vary in shape, the way they obtain and use energy, the makeup of their cell walls, and their ability to move.
  • To move they either use flagella (long, threadlike structure) or pili (short, thick outgrowths that allow them to attach to surfaces)
diversity in eukaryotes
Diversity in Eukaryotes
  • Animal and plant cells
  • Have many of the same organelles, but plant cells also have chloroplasts, central vacuole, and cell wall.
  • Structure varies according to their function.
  • Their internal makeup of cells are specialized for certain functions. Example: muscle cells, which use large amounts of energy, have many mitochondria.
levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • Plants and animals have many highly specialized cells that are arranged into tissues, organs, and organ systems.
  • Tissue: a distinct group of cells that have similar structures and functions.
  • Example: muscle tissue is a group of many cells that have bundles of cytoskeletal structures.
  • Different tissues may be arranged into an organ, which is a specialized structure that has a specific function.
  • Example: the heart is an organ made of muscle, nerve, and other tissues.
organ system
Organ System
  • Various organs that carry out a major body function that make up an organ system.
  • Example: The circulatory system is made up of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
body types
Body Types
  • Single cells can not grow larger than a certain size, multicellular organisms can be large.
  • A multicellular organism is composed of many individual, permanently associated cells that coordinate their activities.
  • Distinct types of cells have specialized functions that help the organism survive.
cell groups
Cell Groups
  • Some unicellular organisms can thrive independently, but others live in groups.
  • Cells that live as a connected group but do not depend on each other for survival are considered colonial organisms.
  • True multicellularity occurs only in eukaryotes.
  • The cells of a multicellular body perform highly specific functions.
  • Most multicellular organisms begin as a single cell.
  • The specialized cells are arranged into tissues, organs, and organ systems, making up the entire organism.