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Making Parking Garages more efficient AND Environmentally Friendly. Wisconsin Parking Association November, 2008. Agenda. Climate Considerations Cost Considerations Current Energy Savings Technologies Future Energy Savings Technologies Case Study Q&A. Groom Energy Solutions.

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making parking garages more efficient and environmentally friendly

Making Parking Garages more efficient AND Environmentally Friendly

Wisconsin Parking Association

November, 2008

agenda
Agenda
  • Climate Considerations
  • Cost Considerations
  • Current Energy Savings Technologies
  • Future Energy Savings Technologies
  • Case Study
  • Q&A
groom energy solutions
Groom Energy Solutions
  • Provides a full spectrum of renewable and energy efficiency technologies and services to commercial and industrial companies nationwide.
    • Climate Strategy consulting
    • Comprehensive energy and environmental assessments
    • Practical solutions through turn key installation across the US
    • Financing and Maintenance offerings
ges solution offerings
GES Solution Offerings

Groom Energy Climate Strategy

Comprehensive Energy Assessments

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy

Turn Key Rollout Services

Lighting

Energy Commodity

Daylight Harvesting

HVAC

Demand Response

Solar Electric

Power Factor

Combined Heat/Power

Solar Thermal

Motor/Drive/Compressors

Distributed Generation

Wind

Research & Development

Maintenance Services

Financing Services

climate and emissions considerations
Climate and Emissions Considerations
  • GHG emissions in 5 major categories
    • CO2 – Carbon Dioxide 85%
    • Methane – 21 times more harmful than CO2 8%
    • NO – Nitrous Oxide 5%
    • Fluorocarbons – Manufacturing process byproduct
    • Sulfur Hexafluoride – Manufacturing process byproduct
  • The leading emitter of CO2 – Electricity generating Power Plants
    • Predominantly coal burning
  • Carbon Dioxide is thought to be the leading contributor to GHG and Global Warming
environmental programs
Environmental Programs
  • Programs:
  • Carbon footprint reduction
    • Climate Registry
    • EPA’s Climate Leaders
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Energy Star
    • Building Rating
    • Massive Marketing Value
    • Customers prefer Green
  • LEED
    • Existing Building
electricity demand and prices
Electricity Demand and Prices
  • Energy Demand is Skyrocketing
    • Oil demand will increase by 50% from ’02 to ’30
    • Electricity demand is growing 30% faster than supply
  • Electricity Costs are predicted to escalate
    • Fuel prices for natural gas have increased over 300% since 1999. Edison Foundation.
    • Coal is plentiful but dirty
    • Coal demand has increased by 20% in the past 2 years. Brattle Group.

Electricity prices have increased in all regions by an average of 6.5% per year.

legislative activity
Legislative activity
  • Legislative drums are beating
    • Strong Economy and Climate Protection Act

2006 Feinstein (D)

    • Mandatory Cap and Measurement Requirements
      • 2008 Liebermann Warner Act (in committee)
      • President elect Obama strongly supports cap and trade
      • Measurement>Regulation>Reduction
    • Multiple Incentive and Support Programs
      • Passed with the Economic Stimulus act
  • The perfect storm for ever escalating electricity prices and increased GHG reporting requirements.
energy use in parking garages
Energy use in Parking Garages
  • Most garages run 24/7/365
  • Major Consumers of Electricity
    • Lighting
    • HVAC – Fans (mostly below ground)
  • Variable Cost Breakdown
    • Labor/Management
    • Electricity
    • Maintenance
  • How much electricity does an average garage consume?
  • $115,000 (@$.12/kWh)
  • 950,000 kWh
  • 500,000 square foot above grade garage
ventilation systems in today s garages
Ventilation Systems in Today’s Garages
  • Two types of code requirements for ventilation
    • 24/7
    • Sensor activated
  • Ventilation standard - ASHRAE Standard 62
  • Most ventilation fans run at full speed 24/7/365
    • Regardless of requirements
      • Volume of Automobiles
      • Amount of CO emitted
  • Energy Efficiency measures to consider
    • Variable or multi-speed motors
    • Sensing technologies that monitor CO space by space
      • Applies the appropriate CFM to the correct location
lighting in today s garages
Lighting in Today’s Garages
  • Today’s market
    • Mostly sealed/gasketed HID based systems
      • Metal Halide
      • High Pressure Sodium
    • Limited sealed & gasketed fluorescent linear
  • fluorescent installations
  • Market Trends
    • While most Industrial and Commercial facilities have retrofitted away from HIDs to fluorescents, most garages have not made this transition
      • Issues:
        • ROI under 2 years required
        • Performance in hot and cold temperature zones
        • Perception about lamp failure and color rendering
        • How long till LEDs are economically viable?
  • Energy Efficiency measures to consider
    • Retrofit to more energy efficient systems
    • Outsource/bundle in maintenance – Performance Contracting
high efficiency lighting options
High Efficiency Lighting Options
  • Lamp style/types available
  • Fluorescent Vapor Tight Fixtures
  • HID pulse start
  • Induction lamp based systems
  • LEDs
  • Compact Fluorescent (PL) Retrofit Kits
  • Each have positives and negatives
  • Lamp life
  • Energy savings
  • Capital cost
  • Maintenance
  • Quality of light
  • Cold and hot weather performance
renewable applications to consider
Renewable Applications to Consider
  • Rooftop mounted Wind
    • Mounting to parapet wall of garage structure
    • Boston Logan Airport Deployment
      • 20 1kw turbines deployed March 2008
      • 100,000 kWh annually displaced
  • Solar Photovoltaic systems
    • 180 – 200 watt panels per section

3x5 feet per panel

    • Kwh produced by PV panels,

integrated into buildings electrical

infrastructure

future applications
Future Applications
  • Photovoltaic Shade structures
  • Top floor retrofit or new build
  • Heavy incentives
  • Green Marketing
  • Plug-In Hybrid Stations
  • Charge or sell back kWh from battery charging stations
    • Mfr Products Rolling Out
      • Daimler Sprinter, Chevy Volt, Toyota Prius PI
    • Wal Mart support
      • "there is a place for Wal-Mart in the hybrid electric or plug-in electric car market“ Lee Scott
  • New Revenue Opportunity
energy efficiency incentives
Energy Efficiency Incentives
  • Local Utility Rebates (Lighting and Fan Motors)
    • Regional in Nature, mostly in deregulated markets
    • Can represent up to 50% of the entire cost of a project
    • Documentation is the key!
  • Federal EPAct 2005 Tax Incentive (Lighting)
    • $.60/sq. ft.
    • LPD, Bi-Level Switching, IES Light Levels
    • Tax Deduction
    • Free riding
    • 2 Big Issues
      • Design for Success – Chose a knowledgeable provider
      • Memorialize the correct documentation
    • “Designer” designation for government applications
  • Federal Economic Stimulus Act 2008 (All Capital Projects)
    • Projects enjoy 50% 1st year depreciation
    • Only for projects completed in 2008
  • Demand Response participation
    • $ annuity for commitment to reduce load during “events”
renewable energy incentives
Renewable Energy Incentives
  • Local/State Clean Energy Fund
    • Incentives available in certain states such as CA, NY, NJ, CT, MA
    • Newly developing incentive programs in many other states
    • $1 to $4 per watt
  • Federal EPAct2005
    • 30% Tax Credit for solar and wind applications
    • Extended for 5 years
  • 2008 Economic Stimulus Act
    • Accelerated depreciation for 50% of the value of capital projects
    • Set to expire at the end of 2008
  • Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)
    • Credit for 1 mega-watt hour of certified renewable energy produced
    • Currently trading at approx. $30/REC
    • Firms will forward buy 7 years of RECs
financing
Financing
  • Traditional Energy Efficiency Options
    • Outright Purchase
    • Leasing
      • Operating lease
      • Finance lease
    • Outsourced Performance Contracts
      • Guaranteed savings
      • No capital outlay
      • No maintenance costs
      • Multi-year commitment
  • Power Purchase Agreements
    • “Rent your rooftop” by buying power from renewable sources with long term purchase contracts
    • Buy power at a discounted rate for a given period oftime
lighting upgrade case study initial system
Lighting Upgrade Case Study – Initial system
  • Current technology
    • 410 – 175 MH (215 total watts) lighting fixtures
      • 10,000 hour rated life (1.14 years)
    • 20 – Incandescent Exit Signs
      • 2,000 hour rated life (2.7 months)
    • 400,000 square feet running 24/7
    • Annual Emissions
      • 1,607,846 pounds of CO2
      • 10,540 pounds of SO2
    • $113,845 Annual Cost of Lighting - 948,708 kWh
lighting upgrade case study issues
Lighting Upgrade Case Study - Issues
  • Cold weather location
      • Linear Fluorescents were not considered – poor cold weather performance
  • Constant Maintenance of Exit Signs
      • Liability concern
  • Frequent lamp replacement
      • Low life expectancy
      • Vibration from snow plows and traffic
  • Immediate Cash Flow required
lighting upgrade case study technology
Lighting Upgrade Case Study - Technology
  • Upgraded Existing fixtures to:
    • 410 – 93 watt 4 pin hi amalgam fluorescent
      • 20,000 hour rated life (2.3 years or 2x previous)
    • 20 – LED screw in retrofits
      • 50,000 hour rated life (5.7 years or 20x previous)
lighting upgrade case study financial impact
Lighting Upgrade Case Study – Financial Impact
  • $75,637 in annual energy and maintenance savings
  • $24,600 Utility Incentive dollars received
  • $8,647 EPAct2005 bottom line savings
  • $108,884 Total First Year Savings
  • Project Return on Investment 10 months
  • Added Positive Environmental Impact
    • Additional Carbon Credit opportunity of $2,500 per year
    • Annual Emissions
      • From 1,607,846 to 691,984 pounds of CO2
      • From 10,540 to 4,536 pounds of SO2
slide22

T H A N K Y O U !

For more information or for a copy of this presentation please contact:

Eric Steele

Groom Energy Solutions

[email protected]

(508) 465 0154

environmental hype or reality
Environmental Hype or Reality?
  • The Arctic Ocean could be ice free by 2050.

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. 2004.

  • Temperatures are rising. Of the 20 hottest years in recorded history, 19 have occurred in the past 20 years

National Geographic Study 2006

  • Global Warming is a reality, and humans are contributing the largest portion of GHG.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
air and water in perspective
Air and Water in Perspective
  • The Blue Ball represents all the water (fresh and salt) in the world
  • The Pink Ball represents the atmosphere that surrounds the earth
environmental impact
Sea levels around North America are rising .08 -.12% per year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

Temperatures around the globe are rising

Man-made or natural?

Environmental Impact
case study
Case Study
  • Lighting
  • Current technology
    • 410 – 175 MH (215 total watts) lighting fixtures
      • 10,000 hour rated life (1.14 years)
    • 20 – Incandescent Exit Signs
      • 2,000 hour rated life (2.7 months)
    • 400,000 square feet running 24/7
    • Annual Emissions
      • 1,607,846 pounds of CO2
      • 10,540 pounds of SO2
    • $113,845 Annual Cost of Lighting - 948,708 kWh
case study28
Case Study
  • Lighting
  • Performance Issues
    • Cold weather location
      • Linear Fluorescents were not considered – poor cold weather performance
    • Constant Maintenance of Exit Signs
      • Liability concern
    • Frequent lamp replacement
      • Low life expectancy
      • Vibration from snow plows and traffic
    • Immediate Cash Flow required
case study29
Case Study
  • Upgraded Technology
    • 410 – 93 watt 4 pin hi amalgam fluorescent
      • 20,000 hour rated life (2.3 years)
    • 20 – LED screw in retrofits
      • 50,000 hour rated life (5.7 years)
    • Annual Emissions
      • 691,984 pounds of CO2
      • 4,536 pounds of SO2
    • $48,933 Annual cost of lighting – 407,778 kWh
case study upgrade impact
Case Study Upgrade Impact
  • Economics
  • Cost Savings
    • $75,637 in annual energy and maintenance savings
    • $24,600 Utility Incentive
    • $8,647 EPAct bottom line savings
    • $108,884 Total First Year Savings
    • Carbon Credit opportunity of $2,500 per year
    • Return on Investment 10 months
high efficiency lighting options31
High Efficiency Lighting Options
  • Fluorescent Vapor Tight Fixtures
    • Positives
      • Good color rendering
      • Long life
      • Good energy savings
    • Negatives
      • Costly installation and expensive waste
      • Poor temperature dynamics (hi and lo temps)
  • PL based Retrofits
    • Positives
      • Inexpensive
      • Good color rendering
      • Long life
      • Good energy savings
      • Excellent temperature dynamics
    • Negatives
      • Not possible for all applications
high efficiency lighting options32
High Efficiency Lighting Options
  • Induction lamp based systems
    • Positives
      • Excellent life expectancy
      • Good energy savings
      • Good color rendering
    • Negatives
      • Costly and expensive to install
      • Very poor reliability
  • LEDs
    • Positives
      • Excellent life expectancy
      • Tremendous potential for future performance
      • Good color rendering
      • Good low temperature performance
      • Directional light characteristics
    • Negatives
      • Costly
      • Marginally efficient right now
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