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Making Parking Garages more efficient AND Environmentally Friendly. Wisconsin Parking Association November, 2008. Agenda. Climate Considerations Cost Considerations Current Energy Savings Technologies Future Energy Savings Technologies Case Study Q&A. Groom Energy Solutions.

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Making parking garages more efficient and environmentally friendly l.jpg

Making Parking Garages more efficient AND Environmentally Friendly

Wisconsin Parking Association

November, 2008


Agenda l.jpg
Agenda Friendly

  • Climate Considerations

  • Cost Considerations

  • Current Energy Savings Technologies

  • Future Energy Savings Technologies

  • Case Study

  • Q&A


Groom energy solutions l.jpg
Groom Energy Solutions Friendly

  • Provides a full spectrum of renewable and energy efficiency technologies and services to commercial and industrial companies nationwide.

    • Climate Strategy consulting

    • Comprehensive energy and environmental assessments

    • Practical solutions through turn key installation across the US

    • Financing and Maintenance offerings


Ges solution offerings l.jpg
GES Solution Offerings Friendly

Groom Energy Climate Strategy

Comprehensive Energy Assessments

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy

Turn Key Rollout Services

Lighting

Energy Commodity

Daylight Harvesting

HVAC

Demand Response

Solar Electric

Power Factor

Combined Heat/Power

Solar Thermal

Motor/Drive/Compressors

Distributed Generation

Wind

Research & Development

Maintenance Services

Financing Services


Climate and emissions considerations l.jpg
Climate and Emissions Considerations Friendly

  • GHG emissions in 5 major categories

    • CO2 – Carbon Dioxide 85%

    • Methane – 21 times more harmful than CO2 8%

    • NO – Nitrous Oxide 5%

    • Fluorocarbons – Manufacturing process byproduct

    • Sulfur Hexafluoride – Manufacturing process byproduct

  • The leading emitter of CO2 – Electricity generating Power Plants

    • Predominantly coal burning

  • Carbon Dioxide is thought to be the leading contributor to GHG and Global Warming


Environmental programs l.jpg
Environmental Programs Friendly

  • Programs:

  • Carbon footprint reduction

    • Climate Registry

    • EPA’s Climate Leaders

  • Energy Efficiency

  • Energy Star

    • Building Rating

    • Massive Marketing Value

    • Customers prefer Green

  • LEED

    • Existing Building


Electricity demand and prices l.jpg
Electricity Demand and Prices Friendly

  • Energy Demand is Skyrocketing

    • Oil demand will increase by 50% from ’02 to ’30

    • Electricity demand is growing 30% faster than supply

  • Electricity Costs are predicted to escalate

    • Fuel prices for natural gas have increased over 300% since 1999. Edison Foundation.

    • Coal is plentiful but dirty

    • Coal demand has increased by 20% in the past 2 years. Brattle Group.

Electricity prices have increased in all regions by an average of 6.5% per year.


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Legislative activity Friendly

  • Legislative drums are beating

    • Strong Economy and Climate Protection Act

      2006 Feinstein (D)

    • Mandatory Cap and Measurement Requirements

      • 2008 Liebermann Warner Act (in committee)

      • President elect Obama strongly supports cap and trade

      • Measurement>Regulation>Reduction

    • Multiple Incentive and Support Programs

      • Passed with the Economic Stimulus act

  • The perfect storm for ever escalating electricity prices and increased GHG reporting requirements.


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Energy use in Parking Garages Friendly

  • Most garages run 24/7/365

  • Major Consumers of Electricity

    • Lighting

    • HVAC – Fans (mostly below ground)

  • Variable Cost Breakdown

    • Labor/Management

    • Electricity

    • Maintenance

  • How much electricity does an average garage consume?

  • $115,000 (@$.12/kWh)

  • 950,000 kWh

  • 500,000 square foot above grade garage


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Ventilation Systems in Today’s Garages Friendly

  • Two types of code requirements for ventilation

    • 24/7

    • Sensor activated

  • Ventilation standard - ASHRAE Standard 62

  • Most ventilation fans run at full speed 24/7/365

    • Regardless of requirements

      • Volume of Automobiles

      • Amount of CO emitted

  • Energy Efficiency measures to consider

    • Variable or multi-speed motors

    • Sensing technologies that monitor CO space by space

      • Applies the appropriate CFM to the correct location


Lighting in today s garages l.jpg
Lighting in Today’s Garages Friendly

  • Today’s market

    • Mostly sealed/gasketed HID based systems

      • Metal Halide

      • High Pressure Sodium

    • Limited sealed & gasketed fluorescent linear

  • fluorescent installations

  • Market Trends

    • While most Industrial and Commercial facilities have retrofitted away from HIDs to fluorescents, most garages have not made this transition

      • Issues:

        • ROI under 2 years required

        • Performance in hot and cold temperature zones

        • Perception about lamp failure and color rendering

        • How long till LEDs are economically viable?

  • Energy Efficiency measures to consider

    • Retrofit to more energy efficient systems

    • Outsource/bundle in maintenance – Performance Contracting


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High Efficiency Lighting Options Friendly

  • Lamp style/types available

  • Fluorescent Vapor Tight Fixtures

  • HID pulse start

  • Induction lamp based systems

  • LEDs

  • Compact Fluorescent (PL) Retrofit Kits

  • Each have positives and negatives

  • Lamp life

  • Energy savings

  • Capital cost

  • Maintenance

  • Quality of light

  • Cold and hot weather performance


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Renewable Applications to Consider Friendly

  • Rooftop mounted Wind

    • Mounting to parapet wall of garage structure

    • Boston Logan Airport Deployment

      • 20 1kw turbines deployed March 2008

      • 100,000 kWh annually displaced

  • Solar Photovoltaic systems

    • 180 – 200 watt panels per section

      3x5 feet per panel

    • Kwh produced by PV panels,

      integrated into buildings electrical

      infrastructure


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Future Applications Friendly

  • Photovoltaic Shade structures

  • Top floor retrofit or new build

  • Heavy incentives

  • Green Marketing

  • Plug-In Hybrid Stations

  • Charge or sell back kWh from battery charging stations

    • Mfr Products Rolling Out

      • Daimler Sprinter, Chevy Volt, Toyota Prius PI

    • Wal Mart support

      • "there is a place for Wal-Mart in the hybrid electric or plug-in electric car market“ Lee Scott

  • New Revenue Opportunity


Energy efficiency incentives l.jpg
Energy Efficiency Incentives Friendly

  • Local Utility Rebates (Lighting and Fan Motors)

    • Regional in Nature, mostly in deregulated markets

    • Can represent up to 50% of the entire cost of a project

    • Documentation is the key!

  • Federal EPAct 2005 Tax Incentive (Lighting)

    • $.60/sq. ft.

    • LPD, Bi-Level Switching, IES Light Levels

    • Tax Deduction

    • Free riding

    • 2 Big Issues

      • Design for Success – Chose a knowledgeable provider

      • Memorialize the correct documentation

    • “Designer” designation for government applications

  • Federal Economic Stimulus Act 2008 (All Capital Projects)

    • Projects enjoy 50% 1st year depreciation

    • Only for projects completed in 2008

  • Demand Response participation

    • $ annuity for commitment to reduce load during “events”


Renewable energy incentives l.jpg
Renewable Energy Incentives Friendly

  • Local/State Clean Energy Fund

    • Incentives available in certain states such as CA, NY, NJ, CT, MA

    • Newly developing incentive programs in many other states

    • $1 to $4 per watt

  • Federal EPAct2005

    • 30% Tax Credit for solar and wind applications

    • Extended for 5 years

  • 2008 Economic Stimulus Act

    • Accelerated depreciation for 50% of the value of capital projects

    • Set to expire at the end of 2008

  • Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)

    • Credit for 1 mega-watt hour of certified renewable energy produced

    • Currently trading at approx. $30/REC

    • Firms will forward buy 7 years of RECs


Financing l.jpg
Financing Friendly

  • Traditional Energy Efficiency Options

    • Outright Purchase

    • Leasing

      • Operating lease

      • Finance lease

    • Outsourced Performance Contracts

      • Guaranteed savings

      • No capital outlay

      • No maintenance costs

      • Multi-year commitment

  • Power Purchase Agreements

    • “Rent your rooftop” by buying power from renewable sources with long term purchase contracts

    • Buy power at a discounted rate for a given period oftime


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Lighting Upgrade Case Study – Initial system Friendly

  • Current technology

    • 410 – 175 MH (215 total watts) lighting fixtures

      • 10,000 hour rated life (1.14 years)

    • 20 – Incandescent Exit Signs

      • 2,000 hour rated life (2.7 months)

    • 400,000 square feet running 24/7

    • Annual Emissions

      • 1,607,846 pounds of CO2

      • 10,540 pounds of SO2

    • $113,845 Annual Cost of Lighting - 948,708 kWh


Lighting upgrade case study issues l.jpg
Lighting Upgrade Case Study - Issues Friendly

  • Cold weather location

    • Linear Fluorescents were not considered – poor cold weather performance

  • Constant Maintenance of Exit Signs

    • Liability concern

  • Frequent lamp replacement

    • Low life expectancy

    • Vibration from snow plows and traffic

  • Immediate Cash Flow required


  • Lighting upgrade case study technology l.jpg
    Lighting Upgrade Case Study - Technology Friendly

    • Upgraded Existing fixtures to:

      • 410 – 93 watt 4 pin hi amalgam fluorescent

        • 20,000 hour rated life (2.3 years or 2x previous)

      • 20 – LED screw in retrofits

        • 50,000 hour rated life (5.7 years or 20x previous)


    Lighting upgrade case study financial impact l.jpg
    Lighting Upgrade Case Study – Financial Impact Friendly

    • $75,637 in annual energy and maintenance savings

    • $24,600 Utility Incentive dollars received

    • $8,647 EPAct2005 bottom line savings

    • $108,884 Total First Year Savings

    • Project Return on Investment 10 months

    • Added Positive Environmental Impact

      • Additional Carbon Credit opportunity of $2,500 per year

      • Annual Emissions

        • From 1,607,846 to 691,984 pounds of CO2

        • From 10,540 to 4,536 pounds of SO2


    Slide22 l.jpg

    T H A N K Y O U ! Friendly

    For more information or for a copy of this presentation please contact:

    Eric Steele

    Groom Energy Solutions

    [email protected]

    (508) 465 0154


    Appendix l.jpg

    Appendix Friendly


    Environmental hype or reality l.jpg
    Environmental Hype or Reality? Friendly

    • The Arctic Ocean could be ice free by 2050.

      Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. 2004.

    • Temperatures are rising. Of the 20 hottest years in recorded history, 19 have occurred in the past 20 years

      National Geographic Study 2006

    • Global Warming is a reality, and humans are contributing the largest portion of GHG.

    • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


    Air and water in perspective l.jpg
    Air and Water in Perspective Friendly

    • The Blue Ball represents all the water (fresh and salt) in the world

    • The Pink Ball represents the atmosphere that surrounds the earth


    Environmental impact l.jpg

    Sea levels around North America are rising .08 -.12% per year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

    Temperatures around the globe are rising

    Man-made or natural?

    Environmental Impact


    Case study l.jpg
    Case Study year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

    • Lighting

    • Current technology

      • 410 – 175 MH (215 total watts) lighting fixtures

        • 10,000 hour rated life (1.14 years)

      • 20 – Incandescent Exit Signs

        • 2,000 hour rated life (2.7 months)

      • 400,000 square feet running 24/7

      • Annual Emissions

        • 1,607,846 pounds of CO2

        • 10,540 pounds of SO2

      • $113,845 Annual Cost of Lighting - 948,708 kWh


    Case study28 l.jpg
    Case Study year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

    • Lighting

    • Performance Issues

      • Cold weather location

        • Linear Fluorescents were not considered – poor cold weather performance

      • Constant Maintenance of Exit Signs

        • Liability concern

      • Frequent lamp replacement

        • Low life expectancy

        • Vibration from snow plows and traffic

      • Immediate Cash Flow required


    Case study29 l.jpg
    Case Study year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

    • Upgraded Technology

      • 410 – 93 watt 4 pin hi amalgam fluorescent

        • 20,000 hour rated life (2.3 years)

      • 20 – LED screw in retrofits

        • 50,000 hour rated life (5.7 years)

      • Annual Emissions

        • 691,984 pounds of CO2

        • 4,536 pounds of SO2

      • $48,933 Annual cost of lighting – 407,778 kWh


    Case study upgrade impact l.jpg
    Case Study Upgrade Impact year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

    • Economics

    • Cost Savings

      • $75,637 in annual energy and maintenance savings

      • $24,600 Utility Incentive

      • $8,647 EPAct bottom line savings

      • $108,884 Total First Year Savings

      • Carbon Credit opportunity of $2,500 per year

      • Return on Investment 10 months


    High efficiency lighting options31 l.jpg
    High Efficiency Lighting Options year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

    • Fluorescent Vapor Tight Fixtures

      • Positives

        • Good color rendering

        • Long life

        • Good energy savings

      • Negatives

        • Costly installation and expensive waste

        • Poor temperature dynamics (hi and lo temps)

    • PL based Retrofits

      • Positives

        • Inexpensive

        • Good color rendering

        • Long life

        • Good energy savings

        • Excellent temperature dynamics

      • Negatives

        • Not possible for all applications


    High efficiency lighting options32 l.jpg
    High Efficiency Lighting Options year (Exception is Alaska where the land is rising)

    • Induction lamp based systems

      • Positives

        • Excellent life expectancy

        • Good energy savings

        • Good color rendering

      • Negatives

        • Costly and expensive to install

        • Very poor reliability

    • LEDs

      • Positives

        • Excellent life expectancy

        • Tremendous potential for future performance

        • Good color rendering

        • Good low temperature performance

        • Directional light characteristics

      • Negatives

        • Costly

        • Marginally efficient right now


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