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The Roots of Jazz. European influence on Jazz Church hymns Folk songs and dances Military marches and airs Classical compositions. The Roots of Jazz. Instruments. African instruments Banya = Banjo European instruments Slaves brought no property Varied scales and tuning. Styles.

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The Roots of Jazz

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The Roots of Jazz

  • European influence on Jazz

    • Church hymns

    • Folk songs and dances

    • Military marches and airs

    • Classical compositions


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The Roots of Jazz


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Instruments

  • African instruments

    • Banya = Banjo

  • European instruments

    • Slaves brought no property

    • Varied scales and tuning


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Styles

  • Military bands and marching bands

  • Christian hymns

    • Transformed into Spirituals

      • Spiritual: a religious folk song; an expression of hope for release from oppression and sorrow

  • Secular songs, the forerunners of the 12-bar blues, began to appear

    • Orally passed

    • The blues are fundamental to jazz


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    Minstrel Show Music

    • The interchange of cultural elements between whites and blacks

    • 1840s - white stage companies

    • After the Civil War, African-Americans created minstrel companies


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    Cakewalk and Ragtime

    • Sundays

    • Parody dancing

    • “Walkaround”

      • The prize was often a cake

    • Strutting, high-kicking dance to syncopated music became the “cakewalk”, a craze in the 1890s


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    Cakewalk and Ragtime

    • Cakewalk to Ragtime?

    • Ragtime to Cakewalk?

    • Jazz originated from a mix or African and European music and probably could not have developed anywhere but in the United States


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    The Influence of Jazz on Classical Composers

    • Louis Moreau Gottschalk American - 1812-1860

      • Night in the Tropics (c.1858)

        • second movement (allegro molto) is a rumba, a Cuban dance unknown in the United States until the 20th century


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    Debussy

    • Claude DebussyFrench - 1862-1918

      • “Golliwog’s Cakewalk” from Children’s Corner (1908)

      • the cakewalk illustrates the “stride” left hand


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    Stravinsky

    • Igor StravinskyRussian (1882-1971)

      • Piano Rag Music (1919)

        • dedicated to Artur Rubinstein

      • Ebony Concerto (1945)

        • commissioned b y Woody Herman

        • written for jazz ensemble


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    Gershwin

    • George GershwinAmerican (1898-1937)

      • Rhapsody in Blue (1924)

        • 1924 performance by Gershwin

      • Porgy and Bess (1935)


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    Others

    • Darius Milhaud (French)

      • La creation du monde (1923)

        • influenced by Harlem jazz

        • jazz saxophone

    • George Antheil (Polish-American - 1900-1959)

      • A Jazz Symphony (1927)

    • William Albright (American - 1944-1998)

      • Grand Sonata in Rag (1967-1970)


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    Today’s ReviewThe Roots of Jazz

    • Musical forms

      • the Spiritual

        • a transformed Christian hymn

        • began about 1780 with the “Great Awakening”

        • lined out

      • Secular songs

        • loneliness

        • infidelity

        • rootlessness

        • repression

        • not written down

        • forerunners to the 12-bar blues


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    The Roots of Jazz

    • Minstrel Show Music

      • the interchange of cultural elements

      • white companies in blackface

      • after the Civil War, black stage companies in blackface

    • The Cakewalk, Ragtime, and the influence of Jazz on European Music and visa-versa

      • parody of European dances

      • contests, with the prize often being a cake

      • very popular in the 1890’s

      • probably resulted in the development of Ragtime


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    The Roots of Jazz

    • Rhythm

      • Polyrhythms

      • Field Hollers

      • Call and Response

    • Instruments

      • no property

        • African instruments were reconstructed in America

        • the bandora became a guitar

        • the balafou became a marimba

        • the banya became the banjo

      • European instruments were adopted

        • military bands

        • social bands


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    Suggested Additional Listening

    • New World Records (RAAM)

      • #205 White Spirituals from the Sacred Harp

      • #224 Brighten the Corner Where You Are: Black and White Urban Hymnody

      • #294 The Gospelship: Baptist Hymns and White Spirituals from the Southern Mountains


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    People

    Wynton Marsalis

    Buddy Bolden

    Louis Armstrong

    Caruso

    Sousa

    Jelly Roll Morton

    Vern and Irene Castle

    James Reese Europe

    Places, Recordings, Styles

    Original Dixieland Jazz Band

    Storyville

    Ragtime

    New Orleans

    Creole

    The Roots of JazzEpisode One - Gumbo


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    Notes from

    Ken Burns’ JAZZ

    Episode One- Gumbo


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    Notes from

    Ken Burns’ JAZZ

    Episode Two - The Gift


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    The Gift

    • Louis Armstrong - the embodiment of Jazz

    • Jazz becomes an art form

    • 1917 - 1st jazz recordings reached the public

    • Chicago and New York became the centers after WW I

    • Duke Ellington called “The Greatest of all American composers” (?)

    • Louis Armstrong said there are two things in music - one is good, the other, bad

    • Louis Armstrong followed Joe “King” Oliver to Chicago - the Creole Jazz Band


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    The Gift

    • Davenport, Iowa, Bix Beiderbecke, Jack Teagarden

    • The “Hellfighters”, James Reese Europe, The “Memphis Blues”, trick instruments

    • Duke Ellington

      • An elegant dresser

      • “Soda Fountain Rag” - 1st piece

    • Chicago - the Great Migration

    • Gennette Records recorded the Creole Jazz Band’s first tune the “Chimes Blues”


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    The Gift

    • Jazz is a disease

    • Piano in Harlem

      • Stride Piano - James P. Johnson - “Charleston” - Willie “The Lion” Smith

    • Cornettist “Bubber” Miley joins Duke Ellington

    • Will Marion Cook advises Duke Ellington to find the logical way and avoid it

    • The Austin High Gang, a white band, learns the jazz style

    • Eddie Condon develops the Chicago style


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    The Gift

    • Violinist Paul Whiteman called the “King of Jazz”

      • First big hit is “Whispering”

      • 2/12/24 Carnegie Hall, “Rhapsody in Blue”


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    The Gift

    • Fletcher Henderson

      • Working on a graduate degree in chemestry

    • The two greatest bands in NYC:

      • Paul Whiteman and Fletcher Henderson

      • Henderson hires Louis Armstrong and jazz is changed

      • Armstrong stayed with Henderson for 2 years

      • Henderson’s band played at Roseland

    • Armstrong’s greatest contribution to jazz was swing


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