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Chapter 16. Splinting Extremities. Splinting. Reduces pain Prevents further damage to muscles, nerves, and blood vessels Prevents closed fracture from becoming open fracture Reduces bleeding and swelling. Rigid splint Self-splint (anatomic splint). Soft splint. Types of Splints.

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Chapter 16 l.jpg

Chapter 16

Splinting Extremities


Splinting l.jpg
Splinting

  • Reduces pain

  • Prevents further damage to muscles, nerves, and blood vessels

  • Prevents closed fracture from becoming open fracture

  • Reduces bleeding and swelling


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Rigid splint

Self-splint (anatomic splint)

Soft splint

Types of Splints


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Splinting Guidelines (1 of 3)

  • Cover open wounds with dry dressing before applying splint.

  • Check CSM in the extremity.

  • Splint only if it won’t cause further pain.

  • Splint in position found.

  • Warn victim of pain.

  • Use splint that will extend beyond joints above and below injury.

  • Apply firmly, but do not affect circulation.


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Splinting Guidelines (2 of 3)

  • When possible, splint on both sides of injury.

  • Check CSM periodically.

  • Elevate extremity after splinting.

  • Apply ice pack.

  • If possible spine injury, victim should not move.

    • Stabilize spine with rolled blankets on each side of neck and torso.


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Splinting Guidelines (3 of 3)

  • Seek medical care if:

    • Extremity has no pulse

    • Open fracture

    • Dislocation

    • Swollen, hot, tender, or painful joint

    • Deformity, tenderness, swelling over bone

    • Victim unable to walk

    • Snap, crackle, pop was heard

    • Uncertain whether bone was broken

    • Lack of rapid improvement


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Slings

  • Open triangular bandage = sling

  • Folded triangular bandage = cravat/swathe


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Applying a Sling to Upper Arm, Forearm, or Hand/Wrist(1 of 2)

  • Hold victim’s arm away from chest.

  • Place triangular bandage between forearm and chest with point toward elbow.

  • Stretch bandage beyond elbow.

  • Pull upper end of bandage over uninjured shoulder.

  • Bring lower end of bandage over forearm.


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Applying a Sling to Upper Arm, Forearm, or Hand/Wrist(2 of 2)

  • Bring end of bandage around neck to uninjured side.

  • Tie other end at hollow above clavicle on uninjured side.

  • Place swathe around upper arm and body.

  • Place padding underneath both knots.

  • Adjust sling to support hand and wrist.


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Applying a Sling to Clavicle/Shoulder (1 of 2)

  • Hold victim’s arm away from chest.

  • Place triangular bandage between forearm and chest with point toward elbow.

  • Stretch bandage beyond elbow.

  • Pull upper end over uninjured shoulder.


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Applying a Sling to Clavicle/Shoulder (2 of 2)

  • Bring lower end of bandage over forearm.

  • Tuck under armpit on uninjured side.

  • Bring lower end around back.

  • Tie to upper end.

  • Place swathe around chest and forearm.


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Improvised Slings

  • Place hand inside buttoned jacket.

  • Use belt, necktie, or other item looped around neck and injured arm.

  • Pin sleeve of shirt or jacket to clothing.

  • Turn up lower edge of shirt or jacket over uninjured arm.

  • Pin to upper part of shirt or jacket.


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Shoulder Splinting (1 of 2)

  • Support injured arm away from chest.

  • Place open triangular bandage between forearm and chest.

  • Stretch point beyond elbow.

  • Pull upper end over shoulder on uninjured side.


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Shoulder Splinting (2 of 2)

  • Bring lower end over forearm, under armpit on injured side, around back.

  • Tie upper and lower ends.

  • Check pulse and nail color.


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Humerus Splinting

  • Place injured arm across chest.

  • If available, tie rigid splint to outside of arm.

  • Place arm in sling.

  • Secure arm to chest with swathe.


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Elbow Splinting

  • Splint in position found.

  • If straight, tie rigid splint onto arm with cravat bandages.

  • Place arm in sling.

  • Check CSM.


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Forearm Splinting

  • Use one rigid splint from palm past elbow.

  • Use second rigid splint on opposite side of arm.

  • Secure splint with roller bandage or cravats.

  • Put arm in sling.

  • Keep thumb upright.

  • Secure with swathe around body.


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Wrist, Hand, and Finger Splinting

  • Three methods:

    • Place injured hand in position of function.

      • Attach rigid splint extending past fingertips.

    • Place hand in position of function.

    • Place arm in sling and swathe with thumb upright.

      • Tape fingers together with gauze separating fingers.


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Pelvis and Hip Splinting

  • Stabilize victim in position found.

  • Treat for shock.

  • Do not lift legs.

  • Wait for EMS.


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Femur Splinting

  • Traction splint required.

  • Available only on ambulances.

  • Two first aid methods:

    • Place folded blanket between victim’s legs.

    • Place board between legs from groin to foot.


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Knee Splinting (1 of 2)

  • Stabilize in position found.

  • To splint straight knee:

    • Lift injured leg.

    • Place rigid splint under leg, from buttocks to beyond foot.

    • Place cravats under splint.

    • Place padding under knee and ankle.

    • Tie cravats. Do not tie over injured area.


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Knee Splinting (2 of 2)

  • To splint bent knee:

    • Place rigid splint against injured leg.

    • Do not place against knee.

    • Tie cravat around splint and lower leg.

    • Tie cravat around splint and thigh.

    • Tie knots over splint, not over leg.


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Lower Leg Splinting (1 of 2)

  • Self-splint method:

    • Pad between legs.

    • Push cravats under leg with thin board.

    • Tie legs together.

    • Tie knots between legs, over padding.


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Lower Leg Splinting (2 of 2)

  • Using rigid splints:

    • Place rigid splint on outside and inside.

    • Push cravats under leg and splints with thin board.

    • Tie splints and leg together with cravats.

    • Tie knots on top of splint.


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Ankle and Foot Splinting

  • Use RICE.

  • Wrap pillow or folded blanket around ankle and foot.

  • Tie with cravats.


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