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Aquatic Botany. Angiosperms. Hydrophytes. Plants growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content. Categorizing Wetland Plants for Delineation Purposes (p. 755 of Mitsch).

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Aquatic Botany

Angiosperms


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Hydrophytes

Plants growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content.


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Categorizing Wetland Plants for Delineation Purposes(p. 755 of Mitsch)

  • Obligate Wetland (OBL)-occur almost always (>99%) in wetlands; E.g., Typha latifolia, Cattail

  • Facultative Wetland (FACW)-occur usually (67-99%) in wetlands, but also occur in non-wetlands (1-33%); E.g., Onoclea sensibilis, Sensitive Fern

  • Facultative (FAC)-similar likelihood of occurring in wetlands and non-wetlands (33-67%); E.g., Euthamia graminifolia, Grass-leaved Goldenrod

  • Facultative Upland (FACU)-occur sometimes in wetlands (1-33%) but more often in non wetlands; E.g., Quercus rubra, Red Oak

  • Obligate Upland (UPL)-occur rarely (<1%) in wetlands; e.g., Dennsteadtia punctilobula, Hay-scented Fern

    (+/- may be appended)


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Categorizing Wetland Plants by Growth Form

  • Emergent-with leaves that extend above the water surface; e.g., Northern Blue Flag, Iris versicolor

  • Free-floating-float freely on the water surface; e.g., Duckweed, Lemna minor

  • Floating-leaved-leaves float on water surface; e.g., Spatterdock, Nuphar variegata

  • Submersed-most of leaves growing under water surface; e.g., Curly-leaf Pondweed, Potomogeton crispus


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Emergents

Blue Flag Iris

Cattail, Typha sp.


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Emergents

  • tolerate fluctuating water levels

  • may dampen shoreline wave erosion; stabilize sediments with interlocking rootbed of rhizomes

  • usually with protective waxy cuticle

  • leaves with aerenchymous tissue making them buoyant, useful for waterfowl nests

  • may reproduce aerially (flowers) or vegetatively by rhizomes



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Purple Loosestrife

American Burreed, Sparganium americanum


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Floating-leaved Plants

Water Meal, Wolfia sp.

Giant Duckweed, Spirodelia


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Floating-Leaved Plant Community

  • cirucular/eliptical leaves with smooth margins resist tearing

  • leathery; thick cuticle (waterproofing)

  • stomata on surface

  • aerenchyma

  • often long petioles; often covered with mucilage

  • may reproduce from flowers or by extensive rhizomes

  • free-floating plants produce turions to overwinter



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Submersed Plant Community

  • leaves flexible, often finely divided; provide structure for invertebrates

  • no cuticle; often limp-the water provides support

  • heterophylly is common

  • stems photosynthesize

  • some reproduce from seed, others by turion, rhizomes, or tuber


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Submersed Plants

Naiad, Najas sp.



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Pondweeds, Potomogeton sp.


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Carex

Bristly Sedge, C. comosa

Tussock Sedge, Carex stricta


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Juncus

Soft Rush, Juncuseffusus


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