Teaching specific types of knowledge
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Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge. Vocabulary Terms and Phrases. Students must encounter words in context more than once to learn them (at least 6). Instruction of new words enhances learning words in context. The best way to learn a new word is to associate it with an image.

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Vocabulary terms and phrases
Vocabulary Terms and Phrases

  • Students must encounter words in context more than once to learn them (at least 6).

  • Instruction of new words enhances learning words in context.

  • The best way to learn a new word is to associate it with an image.


Vocabulary terms and phrases continued
Vocabulary Terms and Phrases (continued)

  • Direct vocabulary instruction works.

  • Direct instruction on words that are critical to new content produces the most powerful learning. ***Don’t give the students too many words…only the words that are essential.***


Details
Details

  • Students should have systematic, multiple exposures to details.

  • Different types of instruction produce different effects on student learning (the type of instruction should match what you want the student to learn).


Organizing ideas
Organizing Ideas

  • Students have misconceptions about organizing ideas (Example: All Arabs are like Osama bin Laden.) Discussion and argument help to get rid of misconceptions.

  • Students should be provided opportunities to apply organizing ideas (application).


Skills
Skills

  • The discovery approach is difficult to use in teaching skills.

  • Teachers should organize examples into categories that represent different approaches to the skill.

  • Skills are most useful when they are learned to become automatic.


Processes
Processes

  • Students should learn processes in context, not in isolation. (Example: Prewriting should be taught in the context of the writing process.)

  • Teachers should emphasize metacognitive thinking in processes.



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