Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, PhD
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Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, PhD Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health UMDNJ- School of Public Health. History of Air Pollution and New Jersey Perspectives. Presented at NJ Clean Air Council April 14, 2010 Public Hearing. Daytime in London, December 1952 1952 .

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Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, PhD Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health UMDNJ- School of Public Health

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Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, PhD

Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health UMDNJ- School of Public Health

History of Air Pollution and

New Jersey Perspectives

Presented at NJ Clean Air Council

April 14, 2010 Public Hearing


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Daytime in London, December 19521952

Particle levels – 3,000 mg/m3

Particle levels – 3,000 mg/m3

Source: National Archives


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

2.0 -

1.5 -

1.0 -

0.5 -

- 1000

- 900

- 800

- 700

- 600

- 500

- 400

- 300

- 200

- 100

Smoke and sulphur dioxide, mg/m3

Deaths per diem

Greater London, 1952

mg/m3 not ug/m3

Smoke

Sulphur dioxide

Deaths

15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20

November December


Pittsburg during the pre epa industrial era

Pittsburg During the Pre-EPA Industrial Era

U. Pittsburgh


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Pittsburgh in 2009


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

NYC “Thanksgiving” Smog Episode


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

SO2 Concentrations in NYC

Coal Burning Banned in NYC

EPA formed by Nixon


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations

in New Jersey

1975-2006

Second Highest Daily Average

1975 – post CAA

Major improvement since the 1960’s


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Figure 11

Long Term Trend in Particulate Levels

State Average

1967-2006

Smoke Shade as and indicator of Particulate Matter – 10X Reduction

CAA


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Middle of proposed revision


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Verdict

  • NJ has substantially improved Air Quality and reduced unhealthy levels of Air Pollution

    • Criteria Pollutants

      • Reductions to meet the original standards

      • Reductions to meet mandates of Revised Standards

    • Reasons

      • Sound implementation Plans

      • Regional and Local strategies


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

  • Contact with pollutant (Exposure)  Dose

  •  Poison (Health Effects)


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Contact with Air Pollution

  • Historically – Just about anywhere

    • Outdoors – very high pollution levels – An important consideration since:

      • Houses were not well insulated – High AER led to high indoor levels from outdoor air

      • No Air Conditioning increased Outdoor Air Pollution indoors and increased exposure to outdoor air pollution

      • More Urban living in NJ

      • Less Travel


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Contact with Air Pollution

Currently

  • Outdoors is still dominant for some pollutants but at much lower levels

  • Indoors -- especially for VOCs and SVOCs, the levels will be higher than measured outdoors

  • Transportation

    • More suburban living

    • More in-transit time


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Contact with Air Pollution

Challenging Issues

  • Healthy Communities and Environmental Justice

    • Identifying problems , e.g . invisible sources under “blue sky”

    • “Smoking gun”– “new pollutants”

    • Air toxics: little actions on them

    • Pollution hot spots

  • Within a community

    • Living near roads


Junfeng jim zhang phd professor of environmental and occupational health umdnj school of public health

Contact with Air Pollution

Future

  • Types of Sources Outdoors – for the foreseeable future most will be the same

    • Energy sources may change if the country finally gets focused on energy independence

      • Energy conservation and efficiency

      • Renewable energy and nuclear power

      • Fuel-efficient vehicles

      • Electric cars – Not environmentally neutral – may shift the pollution sources

  • Science, technology, public awareness, and policy


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