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Radiation safety level 5. Frits Pleiter. Contents. atomic and nuclear physics (1) interaction with matter (3) sources and x-ray equipment (2) shielding (3) detection (4) radiobiology (6)

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radiation safety level 5

Radiation safetylevel 5

Frits Pleiter

radiation safety - level 5

contents
Contents
  • atomic and nuclear physics (1)
  • interaction with matter (3)
    • sources and x-ray equipment (2)
    • shielding (3)
    • detection (4)
    • radiobiology (6)
      • objective risk of radiation (6)
      • subjective risk acceptation (6)
  • quantities and units (5)
  • regulations (7)
    • practical health physics (8 - 10)
    • waste (11)

radiation safety - level 5

risk principles
Riskprinciples

the risk of ionizing radiation is 0.05 per sievert

occupational risk > 1 in 1000 is unacceptable

occupational risk < 1 in 10 000 is acceptable

risks between these values are manageable

radiation safety - level 5

risk comparison of risks
Riskcomparison of risks

type of work mortality / year

National Health Council 17-07-1984

light industry 20 per million

industry 40 per million

construction work 100 per million

heavy transport 170 per million

radiological work (20 mSv/y) 1000 per million high risk

natural radiation (2 mSv/y) 100 per million

cigarettes (20 per day) 4000 per million

the risk of 1 cigaret corresponds with the risk of 10 µSv

radiation safety - level 5

regulations from recommendation to legislation
Regulationsfrom recommendation to legislation

ICRP recommendation

International Commission on Radiological Protection

independent commission

recommendation not legally binding, but almost always accepted

European directive

directive must be implemented in national legislation

Dutch legislation

Nuclear Energy Act + decrees + regulations

Working Conditions Act

Environmental Protection Act

General Administrative Law Act

radiation safety - level 5

regulations legislation and supervision
Regulationslegislation and supervision

supervision by the government

Inspectorate of Social Affairs and Employment (ISZW)

Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT)

Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ)

radiation safety - level 5

regulations system of dose limitation
Regulationssystem of dose limitation

justification

benefits must outweigh the health detriment it may cause

optimization

ALARA = as low as reasonably achievable

limitation

limits are not a guide for the maximum permissible dose

limits may never be exceeded

radiation safety - level 5

regulations annual limits
Regulationsannual limits

stochastic effects, exposed workers

category A-workers 20 mSv

category B-workers 6 mSv

stochastic effects, non-exposed workers

normal workers 1 mSv

members of the public 1 mSv

requirement for permit holder 0.1 mSv outside location

these limits are meant to minimalize the risk of stochastic effects

radiation safety - level 5

regulations annual limits1
Regulationsannual limits

harmful tissue reactions, exposed workers

lens of the eye 150 mSv

limbs 500 mSv

skin 500 mSv

harmful tissue reactions, non-exposed workers

lens of the eye 15 mSv

limbs 50 mSv

skin 50 mSv

these limits are meant to prevent harmful tissue reactions

radiation safety - level 5

regulations permit and radioactivity
Regulationspermit and radioactivity

a Nuclear Energy Act permit is required for possession and use of radioactivity if both the activity concentration and the activity exceed the exemption levels

nuclide concentration (Bq/g) activity (Bq)

3H 106 109

14C 104 107

32P 103 106

35S 105 108

99mTc 102 107

125I 103 106

131I 102 106

226Ra 1 104

238U 10 104

radiation safety - level 5

regulations permit and devices
Regulationspermit and devices

an x-ray device must either be reported or be authorized

a permit is required for

  • devices with a maximum high voltage > 100 kV
  • all devices used for

industrial radiography

processing of products

medical therapy for humans and animals

education

(almost all) other devices must be reported

radiation safety - level 5

regulations risk analysis
Regulationsrisk analysis

ionizing radiation may only be applied under supervision of a radiation safety expert level 2, 3, 4 or 5

the radiation expert must make (or commission) a risk inventory and evaluation before starting the application

the risk inventory and evaluation must be approved by a registered coordinating radiation safety expert

radiation safety - level 5

regulations classification of exposed workers
Regulationsclassification of exposed workers

a worker must be classified as an exposed worker if he can receive more than 1 mSv per year as a result of his work

exposed workers must be given appropriate instructions

exposed workers must receive a personal dose-monitoring device which they must (visibly) wear during radiological work

radiation safety - level 5

regulations classification of exposed workers1
Regulationsclassification of exposed workers

exposed workers must be classified in categories

category possible annual dose medical check up

A 6 - 20 mSv yes

B 1 - 6 mSv no

radiation safety - level 5

regulations classification of work areas
Regulationsclassification of work areas

work areas must be classified in zones

zone possible anual dose warning \'no entry\'

sign sign

controlled 6 - 20 mSv required yes

supervised 1 - 6 mSv required no

radiation safety - level 5

regulations transport of radioactive substances
Regulationstransport of radioactive substances

regulations are very complicated

sender is responsible

leave transport to a specialized company

sending radioactivity by regular mail is prohibited

radiation safety - level 5

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