Radiation safety
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Radiation Safety. Dr. LeeAnn Pack Diplomate ACVR. Radiation Safety. All radiation is harmful Learn to protect ourselves Monitor our exposure Make our practices safe while providing diagnostic images to help us treat our patients. ALARA. National Council on Radiation Protection

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Radiation Safety

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Radiation safety

Radiation Safety

Dr. LeeAnn Pack

Diplomate ACVR


Radiation safety1

Radiation Safety

  • All radiation is harmful

  • Learn to protect ourselves

  • Monitor our exposure

  • Make our practices safe while providing diagnostic images to help us treat our patients


Alara

ALARA

  • National Council on Radiation Protection

    • Publishes recommendations for radiation limits

      • Most groups follow their guidelines

  • As Low As Reasonably Achievable


Roentgen

Roentgen

  • First quantitative unit used to measure exposure.

  • It indicates the capacity of radiation to ionize (energy of radiation can remove electrons from atoms) air. Roentgen (R) measures the quantity of ionization produced by X- or gamma radiation.


Radiation absorbed dose rad

Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad)

  • Quantity of radiation energy removed from the x ray beam by an absorbing material

  • 1 rad = 100 ergs of ionizing energy per 1 gram of tissue

  • SI unit = Gray (Gy) = 1 joule of energy absorbed per kg of mass

    • 1 Gray = 100 rads


Roentgen equivalent man rem

Roentgen Equivalent Man (Rem)

  • This is the dose equivalent

  • Expresses the biological impact of the radiation exposure

  • SI unit = Sievert

  • 1 Sievert = 100 rems


Everyday exposure

Everyday Exposure

  • Natural

    • Cosmic rays (altitude, sunlight, plane flights)

    • Natural, ingested or inhaled terrestrial radio nuclides

  • Man Made

    • Medical, nuclear storage facilities

    • Products (lanterns, fire detectors)


Maximum permissible dose

Maximum Permissible Dose

  • Is set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for occupationally exposed workers and the public

  • ALARA is 10% of MPD


Occupationally exposed

Occupationally Exposed

  • Over 18

  • Possible to get 25% of MPD

  • Accept some risk

  • Limits set for various areas

    • Eyes

    • Hands

    • Whole body


Pregnancy

Pregnancy

  • Must declare they are pregnant

  • Monitoring devices

  • Apron

  • First trimester most important


Personnel monitoring devices pmd

Personnel Monitoring Devices (PMD)

  • Anyone who is likely to receive 25% or more of the MPD should be monitored.

  • Film Badges

  • Pocket Dosimeter

  • Thermoluminescent Dosimeter

    • Know how they work, advantages and disadvantages of each type


Radiation damage

Radiation Damage

  • DNA - sensitivity

  • Somatic and genetic

  • Early and Late

    • Cancers

    • cataracts

  • Cumulative


Radiation safety

Time

  • Exposure time should be kept as short as possible

    • Use a technique chart

  • Screens

  • Do not be in room unless necessary


Distance

Distance

  • Again do not be in room unless necessary

  • Inverse square law

  • Exposure switch outside room

  • Cassette holder

  • Wooden devices


Shielding

Shielding

  • Lead aprons

  • Lead gloves

  • Thyroid shield

  • Gonad shield

  • Lead glasses

  • Lead barriers, leaded glass, concrete


Restraint

Restraint

  • Tape

  • Gauze

  • Rope

  • Positioning trays

  • Foam wedges

  • Sandbags

  • drugs


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