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Radiation Safety. Dr. LeeAnn Pack Diplomate ACVR. Radiation Safety. All radiation is harmful Learn to protect ourselves Monitor our exposure Make our practices safe while providing diagnostic images to help us treat our patients. ALARA. National Council on Radiation Protection

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radiation safety

Radiation Safety

Dr. LeeAnn Pack

Diplomate ACVR

radiation safety1
Radiation Safety
  • All radiation is harmful
  • Learn to protect ourselves
  • Monitor our exposure
  • Make our practices safe while providing diagnostic images to help us treat our patients
alara
ALARA
  • National Council on Radiation Protection
    • Publishes recommendations for radiation limits
      • Most groups follow their guidelines
  • As Low As Reasonably Achievable
roentgen
Roentgen
  • First quantitative unit used to measure exposure.
  • It indicates the capacity of radiation to ionize (energy of radiation can remove electrons from atoms) air. Roentgen (R) measures the quantity of ionization produced by X- or gamma radiation.
radiation absorbed dose rad
Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad)
  • Quantity of radiation energy removed from the x ray beam by an absorbing material
  • 1 rad = 100 ergs of ionizing energy per 1 gram of tissue
  • SI unit = Gray (Gy) = 1 joule of energy absorbed per kg of mass
    • 1 Gray = 100 rads
roentgen equivalent man rem
Roentgen Equivalent Man (Rem)
  • This is the dose equivalent
  • Expresses the biological impact of the radiation exposure
  • SI unit = Sievert
  • 1 Sievert = 100 rems
everyday exposure
Everyday Exposure
  • Natural
    • Cosmic rays (altitude, sunlight, plane flights)
    • Natural, ingested or inhaled terrestrial radio nuclides
  • Man Made
    • Medical, nuclear storage facilities
    • Products (lanterns, fire detectors)
maximum permissible dose
Maximum Permissible Dose
  • Is set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for occupationally exposed workers and the public
  • ALARA is 10% of MPD
occupationally exposed
Occupationally Exposed
  • Over 18
  • Possible to get 25% of MPD
  • Accept some risk
  • Limits set for various areas
    • Eyes
    • Hands
    • Whole body
pregnancy
Pregnancy
  • Must declare they are pregnant
  • Monitoring devices
  • Apron
  • First trimester most important
personnel monitoring devices pmd
Personnel Monitoring Devices (PMD)
  • Anyone who is likely to receive 25% or more of the MPD should be monitored.
  • Film Badges
  • Pocket Dosimeter
  • Thermoluminescent Dosimeter
    • Know how they work, advantages and disadvantages of each type
radiation damage
Radiation Damage
  • DNA - sensitivity
  • Somatic and genetic
  • Early and Late
    • Cancers
    • cataracts
  • Cumulative
slide15
Time
  • Exposure time should be kept as short as possible
    • Use a technique chart
  • Screens
  • Do not be in room unless necessary
distance
Distance
  • Again do not be in room unless necessary
  • Inverse square law
  • Exposure switch outside room
  • Cassette holder
  • Wooden devices
shielding
Shielding
  • Lead aprons
  • Lead gloves
  • Thyroid shield
  • Gonad shield
  • Lead glasses
  • Lead barriers, leaded glass, concrete
restraint
Restraint
  • Tape
  • Gauze
  • Rope
  • Positioning trays
  • Foam wedges
  • Sandbags
  • drugs
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