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The Right to Water and Sanitation By. Dr. Soraya Sobhrang Commissioner PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Right to Water and Sanitation By. Dr. Soraya Sobhrang Commissioner Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) . The Right to Drinking Water:

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The Right to Water and Sanitation By. Dr. Soraya Sobhrang Commissioner

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The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

The Right toWater and Sanitation

By. Dr. SorayaSobhrang

Commissioner

Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC)


The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

  • The Right to Drinking Water:

  • Water is a primary need for the survival of human life and it is a priority in the programs and activities of the governments and international organizations. Safe potable water and environmental sanitation are economic and social rights and everyone needs adequate, standard quality of potable water to ensure their healthy life.. Water should be continuously available to meet human needs, such as drinking, personal hygiene, washing, cooking, and health. The quality of water is also very important and water should be free of all forms of pollution and contamination that are harmful to human health.

  • Afghanistan Millennium Development Goal has required the Afghan Government to reduce 50% the number of persons who do not have access to safe potable water by 2020. Also according to Afghanistan MDG, 50 percent of families in Kabul and 30 percent of families in other urban areas will have access to tab water, 90 percent of villages will have access to drinking water, and 50 percent of villages will have access to sanitation by 1391 (2012/13).


The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

  • General Department of Water Supply (GDWS) is responsible for urban water supply, has been able to provide safe drinking water for only 30 percent of the country’s urban-dwellers, according to the GDWS.

  • GDWS had a daily capacity to produce 45,000 cubic meters of safe water at the national level, but this has now increased to 155,939 cubic meters of safe water (29 percent). This is an increase of 29 percent compared to the last two years.

  • According to the GDWS, currently 35 percent of produced water is waistedbecause of technical problems, while the wastage has been around 65 to 70 percent in the past.

  • GDWS has a daily capacity to produce 44,020 cubic meters of water in Kabul and 111,919 cubic meters of water nationally. This daily production of water is in no way adequate, because the country needs 910,000 cubic meters of safe water per day.

  • According to GDWS, Herat city has the highest level of access to safe water and Zabul and Mehtarlam cities have the least access.


The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

  • Sultan HussainHesari, Acting Minister of Urban Development, has said that 70 percent of Kabul’s residents lack access to safe potable water. According to him, digging of deep water wells causes dry-out of Kabul’s under ground water reservoirs.

  • According to the AIHRC Human Rights Field Monitoring in 2008-09, 33.7 percent, in 2009-10, 39.2 percent, and in 2010-11), 55.6 percent of interviewees reported that the water they were using was not healthy and clean. It means that people’s access to safe potable water has been decreasing and the number of such families increases annually.

  • Presently 21 major cities have relative water supply grids and only 30 percent of interviewees said that they use tab water. However, in the AIHRC HRFM, 7.7 percent of interviewees said that they had to wait for over an hour in queue to get water.

  • JarullahMansoori, Minister of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, has said that eight provin in the north face potable water shortages due to drought and that water tanks will be provided to those provinces. According to the Minister, generally speaking, 17 provinces encounter potable water shortages, to which water tanks will be transferred.


The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

  • Director of Water Supply, Sanitary Education, and Environmental Sanitation of MoRRD stated that MoRRD, in cooperation with United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), has constructed 1,941 deep and semi-deep water wells and 31 water supply grids in different parts of the country as part of the water supply and irrigation scheme, making healthy drinking water available for 534,688 people.

  • In addition, over 3,000 potable water sources were funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and constructed by private companies in the past two years, making safe potable water and sanitary services available for over 500,000 people in rural areas.

  • In 2010-11, MoRRD alone built 396 semi-deep water wells and 11 water supply grids across the country, supplying safe potable water to 301,625 people. Additionally, 802 semi-deep water wells, 32 water supply grids, one drinking water reservoir, and seven deep water wells were being constructed in different provinces in 1389 (2010/11). Also over 3,000 water sources have been constructed by other organizations in rural areas,


The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

  • Although the relevant authorities claim that they have designed and implemented many projects to ensure people’s access to water. But access to water is considered a major challenge in rural areas due to consecutive years of drought.

  • The AIHRC HRFM findings reveal that people in rural areas complain about the distant of water collecting poits. In 2009-10, 67.3 percent of interviewees said they had to walk for less than 15 minutes (one way) to reach the water source, 25 percent reported that they had to walk for over 15 minutes to reach the water source, and 7.7 percent stated that they had to walk for over an hour to reach to the water collecting points.

  • The AIHRC HRFM findings reveal that most people have problems over water. In 2009-10, 59.1 percent of interviewees said they had problems over water, while this was increased to 62.6 percent of interviewees in 2010-11.

  • In 1389 (2010/11), 43.1 percent of interviewees said that the water they use is not clean and healthy, 19.3 percent reported that they use water sources jointly with animals, 4.9 percent stated that they purchase water, 4.6 percent do not have access to adequate water, and 4.6 percent have access to water that is saline.


The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

  • Kuchis (Nomads), returnees, and IDPs are the vulnerable groups who have manifold problems in accessing healthy water. The AIHRC HRFM findings in 1388 (2009/10) and 1389 (2010/11) indicate that of all 329 kuchi interviewees, 60.5 percent had access to uncovered water sources and 39.5 percent to covered water sources. Also of all 3,096 returnee interviewees, around 31.5 percent had access to uncovered water sources and about 68.5 percent to covered water sources. IDPs have more problems than others in accessing safe water. Around 65.6 percent of IDPs had access to uncovered water sources and about 34.4 percent to covered water sources.

  • Given the widespread nature of these problems, there is no program to effectively address these problems, leading to increasing lack of access to safe, covered water sources, child morbidity and mortality, and spread of communicable water-borne diseases.

  • As mentioned, 55.6 % of interviewees said the water they are using is not clean and healthy. It mean that there is a need to look at the sanitation and canalization system of the country. As there has not been done any accurate survey and study of Afghanistan’s sanitary situation, so there are very little information regarding it.


The right to water and sanitation by dr soraya sobhrang commissioner

Major Challenges:

  • Delay in budget confirmation,

  • Insecurity and poor coordination at the provincial level,

  • Low capacity of the relevant institutions at the provincial level,

  • Low capacity of private companies and NGOs and local development councils,

  • And complicated public logistics system


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