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Plant Classification. Alternation of generations. Sporophyte (diploid) Begins when sperm fertilizes egg (zygote) Diploid zygote divides by mitosis to create a mature sporophyte Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores Haploid spores released. Alternation of generations.

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alternation of generations
Alternation of generations
  • Sporophyte (diploid)
    • Begins when sperm fertilizes egg (zygote)
    • Diploid zygote divides by mitosis to create a mature sporophyte
    • Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores
    • Haploid spores released
alternation of generations1
Alternation of generations
  • Gametophyte (haploid)
    • Begins with spores created by meiosis
    • Spore grows into gametophyte
      • Male gametophyte creates sperms
      • Female gametophyte creates eggs
    • Sperm & egg create diploid zygote (process repeats)
group 1 seedless nonvascular plants
Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants
  • Live in moist environments
  • Liverworts
  • Hornworts
  • Mosses
mosses
Mosses
  • Nonvascular, seedless
  • Grow low to ground to retain moisture
  • Lack true leaves
    • Leaf-like structures only 1 cell thick
  • Rhizoids anchor into soil
  • Early inhabitant of new ecosystems (succession)
moss life cycle
Moss Life Cycle
  • Gametophyte phase
    • Dominant stage
    • Carpet of moss growing near ground
      • Archegonium: produces female egg
      • Antheridium: produces male sperm
    • Sperm swims through water to fertilize egg
  • Sporophyte phase
    • Stalk grows up from the gametophyte
    • Sporangia houses haploid spores
    • Spores land and new gametophyte grows

See appendix B in your text book

slide7

1) Moss gametophytes grow near the ground (haploid stage)

2) Through water, sperm from the male gametophyte will swim to the female gametophyte to create a diploid zygote

3) Diploid sporophyte will grow from the gametophyte where the zygote is located

4) Sporophyte will create and release haploid spores

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sporophyte

gametophyte

slide8

5) Spores land and grow into new gametophytes

6) The process repeats

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ground

gametophyte

group 2 seedless vascular plants
Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants
  • Vascular system allows nutrient transport to greater heights
  • Club mosses
  • Horsetails
  • Ferns
ferns
Ferns
  • Seedless, vascular plants
    • Vascular: allows taller growth
  • Rhizoids: underground stems draw nutrients
  • Fronds: leaves uncurl
    • sporangia on underside
      • Sori: clusters of sporangia
fern life cycle
Fern Life Cycle
  • Sporophyte phase
    • Dominant stage
    • Sporangia produces haploid spores
    • Spores released into air
  • Gametophyte phase
    • Spore grows into prothallus
      • Archegonium: produces female egg
      • Antheridium: produces male sperm
    • Sperm swims to egg
    • Zygote begins sporophyte stage

See appendix B in your text book

slide13

1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores

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Adult

Sporophyte (diploid)

ground

slide15

3) From the haploid spores, a prothallus (haploid gametophyte) grows in the soil

-- Rhizoids anchor

Let’s zoom in

ground

slide18

6) Fiddlehead uncurls into fronds of ferns.

7) Cycle repeats

-- Sporangia creates spores to be released

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ground

group 3 seed producing vascular plants
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants
  • Gymnosperms
    • Cycads
    • Ginko
    • Conifers
  • Angiosperms
group 3 seed producing vascular plants1
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants
  • 1) Seed plants don’t depend on water to reproduce
    • Pollen (contains sperm) combines with egg
    • Egg hardens into a seed
  • 2) Nourishment and protection
    • Nourish: Nutrients inside seed for the embryo
    • Protection: Hard shell
  • 3) Allow dispersal
    • Carried by wind, water, animals
group 3 seed producing vascular plants2
Type 1: Gymnosperms

Seeds not enclosed in a fruit

produced inside cones

Cone = reproductive structure

Male cones: produce pollen

Female cones: produce eggs and seeds

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants
group 3 seed producing vascular plants3
Gymosperm example: Conifers

Cone plants

Needle-like leaves

Common to lumber industry

Evergreen, Pine, Redwood, Cedar

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants
conifer life cycle
Conifer Life Cycle
  • Sporophyte phase (dominant)
    • Cones grow on tree
    • Female cones
      • Megaspores inside archegonia (gametophyte)
    • Male cones
      • Microspores (gametophyte) released from antheridia
      • sticks to archegonium
      • Pollen tube grows from pollen
      • Sperm travels down pollen tube (zygote/seed created)
      • Sporophyte stage restarts
slide26

2) Pollen grains released from the male seed cones -- Pollen is the male gametophyte

Let’s zoom into the female seed cone

slide27

3) Pollen grain sticks to the female ovule

4) Pollen tube grows from the male spore

5) Two nuclei transfer into female spore - one fertilizes the egg

6) Diploid embryo develops (sporophyte stage restarts)

slide31

female

male

group 3 seed producing vascular plants4
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants
  • Type 2: Angiosperms (flowering plants)
  • Flower = reproductive structure
    • Protects gamete and fertilized eggs
  • Seeds enclosed in a fruit
    • Fruit: Plant ovary
    • Often attract animals to disperse the seeds inside
angiosperm types flowering plants
Angiosperm types(flowering plants)
  • 2 groups: Monocots and Dicots (based on seed type)
  • Cotyledon: embryonic leaf
  • Monocots: embryo with 1 seed leaf
  • Dicots: embryo with 2 seed leaves
angiosperm life spans
Angiosperm Life Spans
  • Three Life Span Types:
  • Annuals
    • 1 year: Mature…produce seeds…die
  • Biennials
    • 1st year: produces short stem, low growth leaves, food reserves
    • 2nd year: taller stem, leaves, flowers, seeds
  • Perennials
    • Live for more than 2 years
flowers
Flowers
  • Reproductive structure of flowering plants
  • Sepals
    • outer ring of leaves
    • protection
  • Petals
    • Inner ring of leaves
    • Brightly colored to attract pollinators
  • Open petals & sepals reveal male and female structures
flowers1
Flowers
  • Female Carpal
    • Inner most part
    • Ovary: within the base (female gametophyte)
    • Style: long stalk
    • Stigma: sticky tip, collects pollen
  • Male Stamen
    • Surrounds carpal
    • Filaments: long stalks
    • Anther: produces pollen (male gametophyte)
in the anthers
In the Anthers
  • Meiosis makes 4 microspores
  • In each microspore
    • Nucleus splits in two
    • 1 nucleus: forms pollen tube
    • 1 nucleus: splits again to make 2 more nuclei
      • 1 nucleus: fertilizes the egg
      • 1 nucleus: fuses to make endosperm
in the ovules
In the Ovules
  • Meiosis makes 4 megaspores (only 1 survives)
  • In megaspore
    • Mitosis creates 8 nuclei
    • 1 nucleus: egg cell
    • 2 nuclei: form embryo sac
    • 5 nuclei: disintegrate
slide48

5 & 6) Pollen tube grows from pollen

    • Two sperm nuclei follow down the pollen tube
slide49

7) Double fertilization:

    • 1 sperm nuclei fuses w/ egg (zygote created)
    • 1 sperm nuclei fuses w/ the embryo sac (endosperm created)
fruit production
Fruit Production
  • In the seed
    • Embryo
    • Endosperm
  • Surrounding ovary grows into a fruit
  • Fruit attracts animals to eat and spread the seeds

Fruit seeds in fox droppings

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