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Plant Classification. Alternation of generations. Sporophyte (diploid) Begins when sperm fertilizes egg (zygote) Diploid zygote divides by mitosis to create a mature sporophyte Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores Haploid spores released. Alternation of generations.

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Alternation of generations
Alternation of generations

  • Sporophyte (diploid)

    • Begins when sperm fertilizes egg (zygote)

    • Diploid zygote divides by mitosis to create a mature sporophyte

    • Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores

    • Haploid spores released


Alternation of generations1
Alternation of generations

  • Gametophyte (haploid)

    • Begins with spores created by meiosis

    • Spore grows into gametophyte

      • Male gametophyte creates sperms

      • Female gametophyte creates eggs

    • Sperm & egg create diploid zygote (process repeats)


Group 1 seedless nonvascular plants
Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants

  • Live in moist environments

  • Liverworts

  • Hornworts

  • Mosses


Mosses
Mosses

  • Nonvascular, seedless

  • Grow low to ground to retain moisture

  • Lack true leaves

    • Leaf-like structures only 1 cell thick

  • Rhizoids anchor into soil

  • Early inhabitant of new ecosystems (succession)


Moss life cycle
Moss Life Cycle

  • Gametophyte phase

    • Dominant stage

    • Carpet of moss growing near ground

      • Archegonium: produces female egg

      • Antheridium: produces male sperm

    • Sperm swims through water to fertilize egg

  • Sporophyte phase

    • Stalk grows up from the gametophyte

    • Sporangia houses haploid spores

    • Spores land and new gametophyte grows

See appendix B in your text book


1) Moss gametophytes grow near the ground (haploid stage)

2) Through water, sperm from the male gametophyte will swim to the female gametophyte to create a diploid zygote

3) Diploid sporophyte will grow from the gametophyte where the zygote is located

4) Sporophyte will create and release haploid spores

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sporophyte

gametophyte


5) Spores land and grow into new gametophytes

6) The process repeats

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ground

gametophyte


Group 2 seedless vascular plants
Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants

  • Vascular system allows nutrient transport to greater heights

  • Club mosses

  • Horsetails

  • Ferns


Ferns
Ferns

  • Seedless, vascular plants

    • Vascular: allows taller growth

  • Rhizoids: underground stems draw nutrients

  • Fronds: leaves uncurl

    • sporangia on underside

      • Sori: clusters of sporangia


Fern life cycle
Fern Life Cycle

  • Sporophyte phase

    • Dominant stage

    • Sporangia produces haploid spores

    • Spores released into air

  • Gametophyte phase

    • Spore grows into prothallus

      • Archegonium: produces female egg

      • Antheridium: produces male sperm

    • Sperm swims to egg

    • Zygote begins sporophyte stage

See appendix B in your text book


1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores

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Adult

Sporophyte (diploid)

ground



3) From the haploid spores, a prothallus (haploid gametophyte) grows in the soil

-- Rhizoids anchor

Let’s zoom in

ground



5) Diploid sporophyte (fiddlehead) grows from the prothallus archegonia

-- prothallus eventually dies

ground


6) Fiddlehead uncurls into fronds of ferns. archegonia

7) Cycle repeats

-- Sporangia creates spores to be released

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ground


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants archegonia

  • Gymnosperms

    • Cycads

    • Ginko

    • Conifers

  • Angiosperms


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants1
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants archegonia

  • 1) Seed plants don’t depend on water to reproduce

    • Pollen (contains sperm) combines with egg

    • Egg hardens into a seed

  • 2) Nourishment and protection

    • Nourish: Nutrients inside seed for the embryo

    • Protection: Hard shell

  • 3) Allow dispersal

    • Carried by wind, water, animals


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants2

Type 1: Gymnosperms archegonia

Seeds not enclosed in a fruit

produced inside cones

Cone = reproductive structure

Male cones: produce pollen

Female cones: produce eggs and seeds

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants3

Gymnosperm example: Conifers archegonia

Cone plants

Needle-like leaves

Common to lumber industry

Evergreen, Pine, Redwood, Cedar

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants


Conifers
Conifers archegonia

  • Seed advantages

    • Don’t depend on water

    • Protects & nourishes embryo

    • Allow plants to grow in new locations

  • Conifers: woody cone houses seeds

    • Male cones: produce pollen

    • Female cones: produce egg

  • Pines, redwoods, spruce, cedar


Conifer life cycle
Conifer Life Cycle archegonia

  • Sporophyte phase (dominant)

    • Cones grow on tree

    • Female cones

      • Megaspores inside archegonia (gametophyte)

    • Male cones

      • Microspores (gametophyte) released from antheridia

      • sticks to archegonium

      • Pollen tube grows from pollen

      • Sperm travels down pollen tube (zygote/seed created)

      • Sporophyte stage restarts



2) Pollen grains released from the male seed cones archegonia -- Pollen is the male gametophyte

Let’s zoom into the female seed cone


3) Pollen grain sticks to the female ovule archegonia

4) Pollen tube grows from the male spore

5) Two nuclei transfer into female spore - one fertilizes the egg

6) Diploid embryo develops (sporophyte stage restarts)



8) Seed will land released

ground



female released

male


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants4
Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants released

  • Type 2: Angiosperms (flowering plants)

  • Flower = reproductive structure

    • Protects gamete and fertilized eggs

  • Seeds enclosed in a fruit

    • Fruit: Plant ovary

    • Often attract animals to disperse the seeds inside


Angiosperm types flowering plants
Angiosperm types released(flowering plants)

  • 2 groups: Monocots and Dicots (based on seed type)

  • Cotyledon: embryonic leaf

  • Monocots: embryo with 1 seed leaf

  • Dicots: embryo with 2 seed leaves



Angiosperm life spans
Angiosperm Life Spans released

  • Three Life Span Types:

  • Annuals

    • 1 year: Mature…produce seeds…die

  • Biennials

    • 1st year: produces short stem, low growth leaves, food reserves

    • 2nd year: taller stem, leaves, flowers, seeds

  • Perennials

    • Live for more than 2 years


Flowers
Flowers released

  • Reproductive structure of flowering plants

  • Sepals

    • outer ring of leaves

    • protection

  • Petals

    • Inner ring of leaves

    • Brightly colored to attract pollinators

  • Open petals & sepals reveal male and female structures


Flowers1
Flowers released

  • Female Carpel

    • Inner most part

    • Ovary: within the base (female gametophyte)

    • Style: long stalk

    • Stigma: sticky tip, collects pollen

  • Male Stamen

    • Surrounds carpel

    • Filaments: long stalks

    • Anther: produces pollen (male gametophyte)




In the anthers
In the Anthers released

  • Meiosis makes 4 microspores

  • In each microspore

    • Nucleus splits in two

    • 1 nucleus: forms pollen tube

    • 1 nucleus: splits again to make 2 more nuclei

      • 1 nucleus: fertilizes the egg

      • 1 nucleus: fuses to make endosperm




In the ovules
In the Ovules released

  • Meiosis makes 4 megaspores (only 1 survives)

  • In megaspore

    • Mitosis creates 8 nuclei

    • 1 nucleus: egg cell

    • 2 nuclei: form embryo sac

    • 5 nuclei: disintegrate







  • 7) Double fertilization: released

    • 1 sperm nuclei fuses w/ egg (zygote created)

    • 1 sperm nuclei fuses w/ the embryo sac (endosperm created)



Fruit production
Fruit Production released

  • In the seed

    • Embryo

    • Endosperm

  • Surrounding ovary grows into a fruit

  • Fruit attracts animals to eat and spread the seeds

Fruit seeds in fox droppings



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