Plant classification
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 53

Plant Classification PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Plant Classification. Alternation of generations. Sporophyte (diploid) Begins when sperm fertilizes egg (zygote) Diploid zygote divides by mitosis to create a mature sporophyte Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores Haploid spores released. Alternation of generations.

Download Presentation

Plant Classification

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Plant classification

Plant Classification


Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations

  • Sporophyte (diploid)

    • Begins when sperm fertilizes egg (zygote)

    • Diploid zygote divides by mitosis to create a mature sporophyte

    • Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores

    • Haploid spores released


Alternation of generations1

Alternation of generations

  • Gametophyte (haploid)

    • Begins with spores created by meiosis

    • Spore grows into gametophyte

      • Male gametophyte creates sperms

      • Female gametophyte creates eggs

    • Sperm & egg create diploid zygote (process repeats)


Group 1 seedless nonvascular plants

Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants

  • Live in moist environments

  • Liverworts

  • Hornworts

  • Mosses


Mosses

Mosses

  • Nonvascular, seedless

  • Grow low to ground to retain moisture

  • Lack true leaves

    • Leaf-like structures only 1 cell thick

  • Rhizoids anchor into soil

  • Early inhabitant of new ecosystems (succession)


Moss life cycle

Moss Life Cycle

  • Gametophyte phase

    • Dominant stage

    • Carpet of moss growing near ground

      • Archegonium: produces female egg

      • Antheridium: produces male sperm

    • Sperm swims through water to fertilize egg

  • Sporophyte phase

    • Stalk grows up from the gametophyte

    • Sporangia houses haploid spores

    • Spores land and new gametophyte grows

See appendix B in your text book


Plant classification

1) Moss gametophytes grow near the ground (haploid stage)

2) Through water, sperm from the male gametophyte will swim to the female gametophyte to create a diploid zygote

3) Diploid sporophyte will grow from the gametophyte where the zygote is located

4) Sporophyte will create and release haploid spores

.

.

.

.

.

sporophyte

gametophyte


Plant classification

5) Spores land and grow into new gametophytes

6) The process repeats

.

.

.

.

.

ground

gametophyte


Group 2 seedless vascular plants

Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants

  • Vascular system allows nutrient transport to greater heights

  • Club mosses

  • Horsetails

  • Ferns


Ferns

Ferns

  • Seedless, vascular plants

    • Vascular: allows taller growth

  • Rhizoids: underground stems draw nutrients

  • Fronds: leaves uncurl

    • sporangia on underside

      • Sori: clusters of sporangia


Fern life cycle

Fern Life Cycle

  • Sporophyte phase

    • Dominant stage

    • Sporangia produces haploid spores

    • Spores released into air

  • Gametophyte phase

    • Spore grows into prothallus

      • Archegonium: produces female egg

      • Antheridium: produces male sperm

    • Sperm swims to egg

    • Zygote begins sporophyte stage

See appendix B in your text book


Plant classification

1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores

.

.

.

.

Adult

Sporophyte (diploid)

ground


Plant classification

2) Spores land in the soil

.

.

.

.

ground


Plant classification

3) From the haploid spores, a prothallus (haploid gametophyte) grows in the soil

-- Rhizoids anchor

Let’s zoom in

ground


Plant classification

4) Sperm swim through water from the antheridium to the archegonia

Let’s zoom back out


Plant classification

5) Diploid sporophyte (fiddlehead) grows from the prothallus

-- prothallus eventually dies

ground


Plant classification

6) Fiddlehead uncurls into fronds of ferns.

7) Cycle repeats

-- Sporangia creates spores to be released

.

.

.

.

ground


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

  • Gymnosperms

    • Cycads

    • Ginko

    • Conifers

  • Angiosperms


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants1

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

  • 1) Seed plants don’t depend on water to reproduce

    • Pollen (contains sperm) combines with egg

    • Egg hardens into a seed

  • 2) Nourishment and protection

    • Nourish: Nutrients inside seed for the embryo

    • Protection: Hard shell

  • 3) Allow dispersal

    • Carried by wind, water, animals


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants2

Type 1: Gymnosperms

Seeds not enclosed in a fruit

produced inside cones

Cone = reproductive structure

Male cones: produce pollen

Female cones: produce eggs and seeds

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants3

Gymnosperm example: Conifers

Cone plants

Needle-like leaves

Common to lumber industry

Evergreen, Pine, Redwood, Cedar

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants


Conifers

Conifers

  • Seed advantages

    • Don’t depend on water

    • Protects & nourishes embryo

    • Allow plants to grow in new locations

  • Conifers: woody cone houses seeds

    • Male cones: produce pollen

    • Female cones: produce egg

  • Pines, redwoods, spruce, cedar


Conifer life cycle

Conifer Life Cycle

  • Sporophyte phase (dominant)

    • Cones grow on tree

    • Female cones

      • Megaspores inside archegonia (gametophyte)

    • Male cones

      • Microspores (gametophyte) released from antheridia

      • sticks to archegonium

      • Pollen tube grows from pollen

      • Sperm travels down pollen tube (zygote/seed created)

      • Sporophyte stage restarts


1 male and female seed cones grow in adult sporophytes

1) Male and female seed cones grow in adult sporophytes


Plant classification

2) Pollen grains released from the male seed cones-- Pollen is the male gametophyte

Let’s zoom into the female seed cone


Plant classification

3) Pollen grain sticks to the female ovule

4) Pollen tube grows from the male spore

5) Two nuclei transfer into female spore- one fertilizes the egg

6) Diploid embryo develops (sporophyte stage restarts)


Plant classification

7) After seeds harden, the cone reopens and the seeds are released


Plant classification

8) Seed will land

ground


Plant classification

9) Seedling grows into (sporophyte)…the cycle repeats

ground


Plant classification

female

male


Group 3 seed producing vascular plants4

Group 3: Seed producing, Vascular Plants

  • Type 2: Angiosperms (flowering plants)

  • Flower = reproductive structure

    • Protects gamete and fertilized eggs

  • Seeds enclosed in a fruit

    • Fruit: Plant ovary

    • Often attract animals to disperse the seeds inside


Angiosperm types flowering plants

Angiosperm types(flowering plants)

  • 2 groups: Monocots and Dicots (based on seed type)

  • Cotyledon: embryonic leaf

  • Monocots: embryo with 1 seed leaf

  • Dicots: embryo with 2 seed leaves


Monocots vs dicots

Monocots vs. Dicots


Angiosperm life spans

Angiosperm Life Spans

  • Three Life Span Types:

  • Annuals

    • 1 year: Mature…produce seeds…die

  • Biennials

    • 1st year: produces short stem, low growth leaves, food reserves

    • 2nd year: taller stem, leaves, flowers, seeds

  • Perennials

    • Live for more than 2 years


Flowers

Flowers

  • Reproductive structure of flowering plants

  • Sepals

    • outer ring of leaves

    • protection

  • Petals

    • Inner ring of leaves

    • Brightly colored to attract pollinators

  • Open petals & sepals reveal male and female structures


Flowers1

Flowers

  • Female Carpel

    • Inner most part

    • Ovary: within the base (female gametophyte)

    • Style: long stalk

    • Stigma: sticky tip, collects pollen

  • Male Stamen

    • Surrounds carpel

    • Filaments: long stalks

    • Anther: produces pollen (male gametophyte)


Plant classification

  • 1) Flower matures and opens


Plant classification

  • 2) Microspores (male gametophytes) created in the anthers


In the anthers

In the Anthers

  • Meiosis makes 4 microspores

  • In each microspore

    • Nucleus splits in two

    • 1 nucleus: forms pollen tube

    • 1 nucleus: splits again to make 2 more nuclei

      • 1 nucleus: fertilizes the egg

      • 1 nucleus: fuses to make endosperm


Plant classification

  • 3) Microspores continue to develop


Plant classification

  • 4) Ovaries divide by meiosis to create megaspore


In the ovules

In the Ovules

  • Meiosis makes 4 megaspores (only 1 survives)

  • In megaspore

    • Mitosis creates 8 nuclei

    • 1 nucleus: egg cell

    • 2 nuclei: form embryo sac

    • 5 nuclei: disintegrate


Plant classification

Microspore lands on stigma


Plant classification

Microspores (pollen) released


Plant classification

Microspores (pollen) land on the stigma


Plant classification

Pollen tube and 2 nuclei transfer into the ovule

.

.


Plant classification

  • 5 & 6) Pollen tube grows from pollen

    • Two sperm nuclei follow down the pollen tube


Plant classification

  • 7) Double fertilization:

    • 1 sperm nuclei fuses w/ egg (zygote created)

    • 1 sperm nuclei fuses w/ the embryo sac (endosperm created)


Plant classification

  • 8) Ovule hardens to form seed


Fruit production

Fruit Production

  • In the seed

    • Embryo

    • Endosperm

  • Surrounding ovary grows into a fruit

  • Fruit attracts animals to eat and spread the seeds

Fruit seeds in fox droppings


Plant classification

9) Seed germinates…cycle repeats


  • Login