Chapter 10. The Cardiovascular System. Learning Objectives (1 of 2). Basic anatomy and physiology Causes, effects, and treatment Congenital heart disease Valvular heart disease Pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical manifestations, complications, and treatment: Coronary heart disease (CHD)
The Cardiovascular System
Normal Mitral Valve
Openings of coronary arteries arising from base of aorta
Distribution of Coronary Arteries
Mitral Valve Damage
Severe Calcific Aortic Stenosis
Partial Cusp Fusion
Mitral valve leaflets are attached to the mitral annulus around valve opening. Normally, valves close at or just below the level of the annulus.
Bacterial Endocarditis around valve opening. Normally, valves close at or just below the level of the annulus., mitral valve
Severe Bacterial Endocarditis
Staphylococcal infection of normal mitral valve with leaflet destruction and perforation
Early atheromatous plaques around valve opening. Normally, valves close at or just below the level of the annulus.
Several stable atheromatous plaques surrounded by dense connective tissue.
Atheromatous deposits reduce lumen of coronary artery
Without excessive demands on heart, 50% or more arterial narrowing may still supply enough blood to heart, but is inadequate during exertion.
Mural thrombus adherent to endocardium
Cardiac rupture through a large transmural infarct
Infarcted Heart Muscle rate.
Uses segment of saphenous vein of internal mammary artieries to bypass obstruction
Dialates narrowed coronary arteries rather than bypassing them
LDL promotes atherosclerosis by transporting cholesterol into arterial wall; HDL protects by transporting cholesterol to the liver for excretion.
Sites of Aortic Dissection into arterial wall; HDL protects by transporting cholesterol to the liver for excretion.
A: Tear in ascending aorta
B: Tear in descending aorta