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Optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe. Near-field experiments : ESPCI, Paris, France Lionel Aigouy, Benjamin Samson Samples : IEF, Orsay, France Gwénaelle Julié, Véronique Mathet TIMA, Grenoble, France Benoît Charlot

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optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe
Optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe.
  • Near-field experiments :
  • ESPCI, Paris, France Lionel Aigouy, Benjamin Samson
  • Samples :
  • IEF, Orsay, France Gwénaelle Julié, Véronique Mathet
  • TIMA, Grenoble, France Benoît Charlot
  • LAAS, Toulouse, France Christian Bergaud
  • LPS, Orsay, France Rosella Latempa, Marco Aprili
  • Fluorescent particles :
  • ENSCP, Paris, France Michel Mortier
outline
OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

outline1
OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles

outline2
OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles

Surface plasmons polaritons launched by apertures

outline3
OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles

Surface plasmons polaritons launched by apertures

A local thermal sensor

Hot zones in a polysilicon resistive stripe

outline4
OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles

Surface plasmons polaritons launched by apertures

A local thermal sensor

Hot zones in a polysilicon resistive stripe

Heating of an aluminum track

how does it work
HOW DOES IT WORK ?

PM

Filters

Microscope

objective

Electromagnetic field on the surface

Sample

Laser

Map of the field distribution on the surface

how does it work1
HOW DOES IT WORK ?

PM

Filters

Many dipoles randomly oriented

Microscope

objective

Electromagnetic field on the surface

APL, 83, 147 (2003)

Sample

Simplicity

Detection of the total electromagnetic field on the surface (Ex, Ey, Ez)

Laser

Map of the total field distribution on the surface

how does it work2
HOW DOES IT WORK ?

PM

Filters

Many dipoles randomly oriented

Microscope

objective

Electromagnetic field on the surface

APL, 83, 147 (2003)

Sample

Simplicity

Detection of the total electromagnetic field on the surface (Ex, Ey, Ez)

Laser (=974nm)

Er / Yb ions

Robust : inorganic → no photobleaching

Infrared excitation :

emission and absorption lines well separated

(= 550nm)

Non linear excitation :

fluo  I2→Contrast enhanced

tip fabrication
TIP FABRICATION

Attachment of the particle

Applied Optics, 43(19) 3829 (2004)

Optical images : 16.5 x 11.7 mm2

tip fabrication1
TIP FABRICATION

Attachment of the particle

Applied Optics, 43(19) 3829 (2004)

Optical images : 16.5 x 11.7 mm2

 exc = 975 nm

Lateral resolution :  / 5

200nm size particle

local optical fields nanoparticles
LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Particle diameter : 250 nm

local optical fields nanoparticles1
LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Fluorescence

Particle diameter : 250 nm

local optical fields nanoparticles2
LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Fluorescence

Particle diameter : 250 nm

Gold

Latex

Latex

Fluorescence is enhanced on gold particles

JAP, 97 104322 (2005).

local optical fields nanoparticles3
LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Fluorescence

Particle diameter : 250 nm

Gold

Latex

Latex

Fluorescence is enhanced on gold particles

Map of the field distribution on the structure

Dark ring around the particle : interference between the incident and the scattered wave.

JAP, 97 104322 (2005).

Circular symmetry of the field distribution

local optical fields nanoslit apertures
LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOSLIT APERTURES

scan

TM-polarized excitation

SEM

10,44µm

local optical fields nanoslit apertures1
LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOSLIT APERTURES

d=10,44µm

scan

TM-polarized excitation

SEM

10,44µm

local optical fields nanoslit apertures2
LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOSLIT APERTURES

d=10,44µm

scan

TM-polarized excitation

Period = 480.5 nm ± 2 nm

 spp / 2 = 481.6 nm

Good agreement with the SPP wavelength

other application temperature measurements
OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Fluorescent particle

Emission varies with temperature

other application temperature measurements1
OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Fluorescent particle

Emission varies with temperature

Tip

Laser beam

Fluorescent particle

Stripe

Microelectronic device

other application temperature measurements2
OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Fluorescent particle

Emission varies with temperature

Tip

Laser beam

Fluorescent particle

Stripe

If we know the temperature dependence of the fluorescence,

then we can determine the temperature

T °

I

Microelectronic device

other application temperature measurements3
OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Pollock & Hammiche,

J. Phys. D 34, R23 (2001)

Improvement of the lateral resolution

Highly localized sensor

other application temperature measurements4
OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Pollock & Hammiche,

J. Phys. D 34, R23 (2001)

Improvement of the lateral resolution

Highly localized sensor

Low parasitic heating by convection through the air

how can we deduce the temperature
HOW CAN WE DEDUCE THE TEMPERATURE ?

PL spectrum of Er / Yb doped particles

Er / Yb ions

how can we deduce the temperature1
HOW CAN WE DEDUCE THE TEMPERATURE ?

PL spectrum of Er / Yb doped particles

Er / Yb ions

4F7/2

2H11/2

4S3/2

(980 nm)

(527 nm)

(550 nm)

(980 nm)

4I15/2

experimental set up
EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Topography

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage

experimental set up1
EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage

experimental set up2
EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Beam splitter

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage

experimental set up3
EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Optical image 1

PMT

Lock-in

520nm

Filter

Beam splitter

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage

experimental set up4
EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Optical image 1

PMT

Lock-in

520nm

Filter

550nm

Beam splitter

Lock-in

PMT

Filter

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage

Optical image 2

does that work
DOES THAT WORK ?

Collaboration : B. Charlot (TIMA, Grenoble), G. Tessier (ESPCI, Paris)

Microelectronic device :

Polysilicon resistor stripe

(covered with SiO2 and Si3N4 layers)

Topography

Yellow optical image (550nm)

Green optical image (520nm)

does that work1
DOES THAT WORK ?

First experiment : no current circulating in the resistor

Yellow fluorescence image (550nm)

Green fluorescence image (520nm)

Topography

Scan size : 45µm x 60µm

does that work2
DOES THAT WORK ?

First experiment : no current circulating in the resistor

Yellow fluorescence image (550nm)

Green fluorescence image (520nm)

Topography

I = 0 mA

Uniform temperature (room temperature)

Optical contrast visible between different zones

Reference image

Scan size : 45µm x 60µm

does that work3
DOES THAT WORK ?

Second experiment : a current circulates in the resistor

I = 50 mA

Hot spots

I = 0 mA

Uniform temperature (room temperature)

Optical contrast visible between different zones

Reference image

APL, 87, 184105 (2005).

conclusion
CONCLUSION

Scanning near-field fluorescent probes have really interesting imaging capabilities !

  • Nano-optics : evanescent fields (localized, surface plasmons polaritons)
  • Nano-thermics : heating in stripes, failure analysis, …

UNIVERSAL DETECTOR !

Future :

- Reduce the size of the fluorescent particle : to get a better resolution

- Many studies : plasmonics and thermics

Acknowledgments : Philippe Lalanne (Institute of Optics, Orsay, and US Dax supporter)

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