Optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe
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Optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe. Near-field experiments : ESPCI, Paris, FranceLionel Aigouy, Benjamin Samson Samples : IEF, Orsay, France Gwénaelle Julié, Véronique Mathet TIMA, Grenoble, FranceBenoît Charlot

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Optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe.

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Optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe

Optical and thermal imaging of nanostructures with a scanning fluorescent particle as a probe.

  • Near-field experiments :

  • ESPCI, Paris, FranceLionel Aigouy, Benjamin Samson

  • Samples :

  • IEF, Orsay, France Gwénaelle Julié, Véronique Mathet

  • TIMA, Grenoble, FranceBenoît Charlot

  • LAAS, Toulouse, FranceChristian Bergaud

  • LPS, Orsay, FranceRosella Latempa, Marco Aprili

  • Fluorescent particles :

  • ENSCP, Paris, FranceMichel Mortier


Outline

OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor


Outline1

OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles


Outline2

OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles

Surface plasmons polaritons launched by apertures


Outline3

OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles

Surface plasmons polaritons launched by apertures

A local thermal sensor

Hot zones in a polysilicon resistive stripe


Outline4

OUTLINE

Introduction : fluorescent particle as a local sensor

A local optical sensor (evanescent fields)

Local field around metallic nanoparticles

Surface plasmons polaritons launched by apertures

A local thermal sensor

Hot zones in a polysilicon resistive stripe

Heating of an aluminum track


How does it work

HOW DOES IT WORK ?

PM

Filters

Microscope

objective

Electromagnetic field on the surface

Sample

Laser

Map of the field distribution on the surface


How does it work1

HOW DOES IT WORK ?

PM

Filters

Many dipoles randomly oriented

Microscope

objective

Electromagnetic field on the surface

APL, 83, 147 (2003)

Sample

Simplicity

Detection of the total electromagnetic field on the surface (Ex, Ey, Ez)

Laser

Map of the total field distribution on the surface


How does it work2

HOW DOES IT WORK ?

PM

Filters

Many dipoles randomly oriented

Microscope

objective

Electromagnetic field on the surface

APL, 83, 147 (2003)

Sample

Simplicity

Detection of the total electromagnetic field on the surface (Ex, Ey, Ez)

Laser (=974nm)

Er / Yb ions

Robust : inorganic → no photobleaching

Infrared excitation :

emission and absorption lines well separated

(= 550nm)

Non linear excitation :

fluo  I2→Contrast enhanced


Tip fabrication

TIP FABRICATION

Attachment of the particle

Applied Optics, 43(19) 3829 (2004)

Optical images : 16.5 x 11.7 mm2


Tip fabrication1

TIP FABRICATION

Attachment of the particle

Applied Optics, 43(19) 3829 (2004)

Optical images : 16.5 x 11.7 mm2

 exc = 975 nm

Lateral resolution :  / 5

200nm size particle


Local optical fields nanoparticles

LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Particle diameter : 250 nm


Local optical fields nanoparticles1

LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Fluorescence

Particle diameter : 250 nm


Local optical fields nanoparticles2

LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Fluorescence

Particle diameter : 250 nm

Gold

Latex

Latex

Fluorescence is enhanced on gold particles

JAP, 97 104322 (2005).


Local optical fields nanoparticles3

LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOPARTICLES

Gold and latex particles on a surface

AFM

Fluorescence

Particle diameter : 250 nm

Gold

Latex

Latex

Fluorescence is enhanced on gold particles

Map of the field distribution on the structure

Dark ring around the particle : interference between the incident and the scattered wave.

JAP, 97 104322 (2005).

Circular symmetry of the field distribution


Local optical fields nanoslit apertures

LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOSLIT APERTURES

scan

TM-polarized excitation

SEM

10,44µm


Local optical fields nanoslit apertures1

LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOSLIT APERTURES

d=10,44µm

scan

TM-polarized excitation

SEM

10,44µm


Local optical fields nanoslit apertures2

LOCAL OPTICAL FIELDS : NANOSLIT APERTURES

d=10,44µm

scan

TM-polarized excitation

Period = 480.5 nm ± 2 nm

 spp / 2 = 481.6 nm

Good agreement with the SPP wavelength


Other application temperature measurements

OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Fluorescent particle

Emission varies with temperature


Other application temperature measurements1

OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Fluorescent particle

Emission varies with temperature

Tip

Laser beam

Fluorescent particle

Stripe

Microelectronic device


Other application temperature measurements2

OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Fluorescent particle

Emission varies with temperature

Tip

Laser beam

Fluorescent particle

Stripe

If we know the temperature dependence of the fluorescence,

then we can determine the temperature

T °

I

Microelectronic device


Other application temperature measurements3

OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Pollock & Hammiche,

J. Phys. D 34, R23 (2001)

Improvement of the lateral resolution

Highly localized sensor


Other application temperature measurements4

OTHER APPLICATION : TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Pollock & Hammiche,

J. Phys. D 34, R23 (2001)

Improvement of the lateral resolution

Highly localized sensor

Low parasitic heating by convection through the air


How can we deduce the temperature

HOW CAN WE DEDUCE THE TEMPERATURE ?

PL spectrum of Er / Yb doped particles

Er / Yb ions


How can we deduce the temperature1

HOW CAN WE DEDUCE THE TEMPERATURE ?

PL spectrum of Er / Yb doped particles

Er / Yb ions

4F7/2

2H11/2

4S3/2

(980 nm)

(527 nm)

(550 nm)

(980 nm)

4I15/2


Experimental set up

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Topography

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage


Experimental set up1

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage


Experimental set up2

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Beam splitter

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage


Experimental set up3

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Optical image 1

PMT

Lock-in

520nm

Filter

Beam splitter

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage


Experimental set up4

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Laser beam (980nm)

Optical image 1

PMT

Lock-in

520nm

Filter

550nm

Beam splitter

Lock-in

PMT

Filter

Topography

F=620Hz

Oscillating tip

Microelectronic circuit

Tapping mode (f=6kHz, amplitude=10nm)

Scanning stage

Optical image 2


Does that work

DOES THAT WORK ?

Collaboration : B. Charlot (TIMA, Grenoble), G. Tessier (ESPCI, Paris)

Microelectronic device :

Polysilicon resistor stripe

(covered with SiO2 and Si3N4 layers)

Topography

Yellow optical image (550nm)

Green optical image (520nm)


Does that work1

DOES THAT WORK ?

First experiment : no current circulating in the resistor

Yellow fluorescence image (550nm)

Green fluorescence image (520nm)

Topography

Scan size : 45µm x 60µm


Does that work2

DOES THAT WORK ?

First experiment : no current circulating in the resistor

Yellow fluorescence image (550nm)

Green fluorescence image (520nm)

Topography

I = 0 mA

Uniform temperature (room temperature)

Optical contrast visible between different zones

Reference image

Scan size : 45µm x 60µm


Does that work3

DOES THAT WORK ?

Second experiment : a current circulates in the resistor

I = 50 mA

Hot spots

I = 0 mA

Uniform temperature (room temperature)

Optical contrast visible between different zones

Reference image

APL, 87, 184105 (2005).


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

Scanning near-field fluorescent probes have really interesting imaging capabilities !

  • Nano-optics : evanescent fields (localized, surface plasmons polaritons)

  • Nano-thermics : heating in stripes, failure analysis, …

UNIVERSAL DETECTOR !

Future :

- Reduce the size of the fluorescent particle : to get a better resolution

- Many studies : plasmonics and thermics

Acknowledgments : Philippe Lalanne (Institute of Optics, Orsay, and US Dax supporter)


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