Women and The Enlightenment. 25 June 2008 NEH Institute. Women and the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment Philosophy in Tension with the Reality of Patriarchal Society Leading philosophes and their Theories on Sex and Gender Women as Agents of the Enlightenment program
25 June 2008
Role of Cartesian Rationalism
Persian Letters, 1721
Spirit of the Laws, 1748
Baron de Montesquieu
Frontispiece of Voltaire/Chatelet
Translation of Newton
Cirey Period (1733-1749)
Complex and Contradictory Views on Women
Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, 1751
Discourse on Inequality, 1755
The Social Contract, 1762
“The General Will”
The Nouvelle Heloise and Emile
Great success of Sentimental Novel
Role of Women?
The Republic of Letters
Letters from a Peruvian Woman
Madame de Graffigny
A Treatise on Man; his Intellectual Faculties and his Education, 1772
Radical Empiricist and Determinist
Human behavior completely determined by education and social environment.
We seek to maximize pleasure and minimize pain…anticipates the British Utilitarians
Claude Adrien Helvetius
Maintained a salon for over five decades which featured the major figures of the Enlightenment, including Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson
Mistress to Louis XV
War of Austrian Succession
Diplomatic Revolution, 1756
Seven Year’s War
Maria Theresa of Austria
Mozart and Women 1765-1780; sole ruler from 1780-1790.
Marriage of Figaro
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Mary Wollstonecraft 1765-1780; sole ruler from 1780-1790.
A Vindication of the Rights of Man, 1790
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792
Noted Mathematician & Scientist 1765-1780; sole ruler from 1780-1790.
Systematically Applied Mathematics to the social sciences
Advocate for Human Rights, including rights for women and blacks
Directly involved in the French Revolution
Theory of Progress
Marquis de Condorcet
Olympe de Gouges 1765-1780; sole ruler from 1780-1790.
Feminist Author and Advocate
Declaration of the Rights of Women