MODAL VERBS 1 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Definicija modalnih glagola. U engleskom jeziku, modalni glagoli su pomocni glagoli (dakle, stoje uz glavni glagol) koji se koriste da se iska

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2. Definicija modalnih glagola U engleskom jeziku, modalni glagoli su pomocni glagoli (dakle, stoje uz glavni glagol) koji se koriste da se iskaže gramaticki nacin u recenici (npr.kondicionalni). Glavna karakteristika modalnih glagola je što nemaju sve oblike, npr.nemaju participe ni infinitiv. U engleskom postoje sledeci modalni glagoli. Ovde su predstavljeni kao oblik za sadašnje i prošlo vreme: shall i should will i would may i might can i could Must (samo jedan oblik)

3. Navedeni glagoli nisu modalni ali mogu da se koriste u istu svrhu: ought to i had better used to dare i need have to Iako su se nekada zaista odnosili na prošlost, oblici za prošlo vreme se u mnogim slucajevima upotrebljavaju bez takvog znacenja.

4. Can, could and (be) able to Can je jedan od najcešce upotrebljavanih modalnih glagola. Znacenja: 1. possibility/allowance (mogucnost/dozvola) 2. ability (sposobnost) We can see the lake from our bedroom window. (ability) ‘I haven’t got a pen.’ ‘You can use mine.’ (allowance) Negativni oblik je cannot (can’t): I’m afraid I can’t come to the party on Friday.

5. Ukoliko can ima znacenje sposobnosti, umesto njega se može upotrebiti izraz (be) able to: We are able to see the lake from our bedroom window. Can ima samo dva oblika, can (sadašnji) i could (prošli). Za druga glagolska vremena zato se koristi (be) able to: I can’t sleep. / I haven’t been able to sleep recently. (Ne mogu da spavam. U poslednje vreme ne mogu da spavam) Tom can come tomorrow. / Tom might be able to come tomorrow. (Tom može da dode sutra. Tom ce možda moci da dode sutra.)

6. Can and Could Could se kao prošlo vreme od can koristi uz glagole: See hear smell taste feel remember understand We had a lovely room in the hotel. We could see the lake. As soon as I walked into the room, I could smell gas. I was sitting at the back of the theatre and couldn’t hear very well. Could se takode koristi da bi se izrazila opšta sposobnost ili dozvola koju je neko imao u prošlosti. My grandfather could speak five languages. (sposobnost – u ovom smislu can/could se prevode kao “umeti/znati”) We were totally free. We could do what we wanted.

7. Could (do) and Could have (done) Could ima više upotreba: 1. kao prošlo vreme od can. Uporedi: Listen! I can hear something. (now) I listened. I could hear something. (past) 2. Kao modalni glagol, i tada oznacava ne prošlo vreme nego mogucnost u sadašnjosti ili buducnosti (za predloge): What shall we do this evening? –We could go to the cinema. (mogli bismo-predlog) Takode se može reci “We can go to the cinema.” (Možemo ici). Ako koristimo could, manje insistiramo na predlogu.

8. 3. Could se koristi i za radnje koje nisu realne. Na primer: I’m so tired. I could sleep for a week. (ne I can sleep for a week) Uporedi can i could: I can stay with Julia when I go to Paris. (realno, jer ona tamo živi) Maybe I could stay with Julia when I go to Paris. (moguce, ako se ona složi) This is a wonderful place. I could stay here for ever. (nerealno) 4. Could = it is possible/will be possible The story could be true, but I don’t think it is. (možda je istinita) I don’t know what time Liz is coming. She could get here any time. (možda ce stici)

9. Could have (done) Could have (done) koristimo za mogucnost, ali koja je postojala u prošlosti: The situation is bad, but it could be worse. (now) The situation was bad, but it could have been worse. (past) It could have happened = it was possible but did not happen: I didn’t know that you wanted to go to the concert. I could have got you a ticket. (I didn’t get you a ticket.) = Nisam znala da želiš da ideš na koncert. Mogla sam ti uzeti kartu. (ali nisam) Dave was lucky. He could have hurt himself when he fell, but he’s OK.

10. Couldn’t (do) i couldn’t have (done) Couldn’t (do) = it is not possible/will not be possible (nepostojanje mogucnosti u sadašnjosti ili buducnosti): I couldn’t live in a big city. I would hate it. Everything’s fine right now. Things couldn’t be better. Za nepostojanje mogucnosti u prošlosti: couldn’t have done = it was not possible We had a really good holiday. It couldn’t have been better. (Divno smo se proveli na odmoru. Nije moglo biti bolje.)

11. Must and can’t Must je takode modalni glagol, s tim što ima samo jedan oblik – sadašnji. Znacenje: must može da oznacava postojanje obaveze, ali takode izražava i verovatnocu, odnosno da je govornik siguran u nešto. It must be true = I am sure it is true You’ve been travelling all day. You must be tired. (I’m sure you’re tired.) Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day. Sally gave me her phone number. I must have it somewhere.

12. Kad želimo da kažemo da smo sigurni da nešto nije verovatno ili moguce, koristimo can’t: It can’t be true = I’m sure it is not true You’ve just had lunch. You can’t be hungry already. They haven’t lived here for very long. They can’t know many people. Can’t u ovaknoj upotrebi prevodimo sa “sigurno ne” ili “nemoguce je”

13. Za prošlost koristimo konstrukcije: Must have (done) There’s nobody home. They must have gone out. (Sigurno su izašli.)= I’m sure they went out. Can’t have (done) Sue hasn’t contacted me. She can’t have got my message. (Sigurno nije dobila moju poruku.) = I’m sure she didn’t get my message. Must/can’t (do) = sigurni smo da je nešto moguce (ili nemoguce) u sadašnjosti Must / can’t have (done) = sigurni smo da je nešto bilo moguce (ili nemoguce) u prošlosti.

14. May and might 1 Modalni glagoli may i might oznacavaju mogucnost/verovatnocu da je nešto tacno. Might nije prošlo vreme od may, vec se koristi da oznaci manju verovatnocu, tj. da je govornik smatra da je nešto manje verovatno . She may know = perhaps she knows She might know Odricni oblici su may not i might not: She may/might not work here any more = perhaps she doesn’t work here.

15. Za mogucnost/verovatnocu u prošlosti, koristimo may/might have (done): I wonder why Kate didn’t answer the phone. She may have been asleep = perhaps she was asleep She might have not known that we were coming.= perhaps she didn’t know May/might i could imaju skoro isto znacenje. The story could be true= It may/might be true. Ali couldn’t ima drugacije znacenje od may/might not: Sarah couldn’t have got my message ? Sarah might not have got my message.

16. May and might 2 May/might takode koristimo da bismo govorili o mogucim aktivnostima ili dogadajima u buducnosti: I haven’t decided yet where to go for my holidays. I may go to Greece. = perhaps I will go Take an umbrella with you. It might rain later. = perhaps it will rain Uporedi will i may/might: I will be late this evening. (sigurno) I may/might be late this evening. (moguce)

17. Obicno su may i might medusobno zamenljivi, a razlika u znacenju je minimalna: I may go to Greece ili I might go to Greece Ali ukoliko govorimo o nerealnoj situaciji, možemo koristiti samo might: If I were in Tom’s position, I might look for another job. (but I am not in Tom’s position) = Kad bih bio na Tomovom mestu, možda bih tražio drugi posao.

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