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Definicija modalnih glagola. U engleskom jeziku, modalni glagoli su pomocni glagoli (dakle, stoje uz glavni glagol) koji se koriste da se iska

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2. Definicija modalnih glagola U engleskom jeziku, modalni glagoli su pomocni glagoli (dakle, stoje uz glavni glagol) koji se koriste da se iska?e gramaticki nacin u recenici (npr.kondicionalni). Glavna karakteristika modalnih glagola je ?to nemaju sve oblike, npr.nemaju participe ni infinitiv. U engleskom postoje sledeci modalni glagoli. Ovde su predstavljeni kao oblik za sada?nje i pro?lo vreme: shall i should will i would may i might can i could Must (samo jedan oblik)

3. Navedeni glagoli nisu modalni ali mogu da se koriste u istu svrhu: ought to i had better used to dare i need have to Iako su se nekada zaista odnosili na pro?lost, oblici za pro?lo vreme se u mnogim slucajevima upotrebljavaju bez takvog znacenja.

4. Can, could and (be) able to Can je jedan od najce?ce upotrebljavanih modalnih glagola. Znacenja: 1. possibility/allowance (mogucnost/dozvola) 2. ability (sposobnost) We can see the lake from our bedroom window. (ability) ?I haven?t got a pen.? ?You can use mine.? (allowance) Negativni oblik je cannot (can?t): I?m afraid I can?t come to the party on Friday.

5. Ukoliko can ima znacenje sposobnosti, umesto njega se mo?e upotrebiti izraz (be) able to: We are able to see the lake from our bedroom window. Can ima samo dva oblika, can (sada?nji) i could (pro?li). Za druga glagolska vremena zato se koristi (be) able to: I can?t sleep. / I haven?t been able to sleep recently. (Ne mogu da spavam. U poslednje vreme ne mogu da spavam) Tom can come tomorrow. / Tom might be able to come tomorrow. (Tom mo?e da dode sutra. Tom ce mo?da moci da dode sutra.)

6. Can and Could Could se kao pro?lo vreme od can koristi uz glagole: See hear smell taste feel remember understand We had a lovely room in the hotel. We could see the lake. As soon as I walked into the room, I could smell gas. I was sitting at the back of the theatre and couldn?t hear very well. Could se takode koristi da bi se izrazila op?ta sposobnost ili dozvola koju je neko imao u pro?losti. My grandfather could speak five languages. (sposobnost ? u ovom smislu can/could se prevode kao ?umeti/znati?) We were totally free. We could do what we wanted.

7. Could (do) and Could have (done) Could ima vi?e upotreba: 1. kao pro?lo vreme od can. Uporedi: Listen! I can hear something. (now) I listened. I could hear something. (past) 2. Kao modalni glagol, i tada oznacava ne pro?lo vreme nego mogucnost u sada?njosti ili buducnosti (za predloge): What shall we do this evening? ?We could go to the cinema. (mogli bismo-predlog) Takode se mo?e reci ?We can go to the cinema.? (Mo?emo ici). Ako koristimo could, manje insistiramo na predlogu.

8. 3. Could se koristi i za radnje koje nisu realne. Na primer: I?m so tired. I could sleep for a week. (ne I can sleep for a week) Uporedi can i could: I can stay with Julia when I go to Paris. (realno, jer ona tamo ?ivi) Maybe I could stay with Julia when I go to Paris. (moguce, ako se ona slo?i) This is a wonderful place. I could stay here for ever. (nerealno) 4. Could = it is possible/will be possible The story could be true, but I don?t think it is. (mo?da je istinita) I don?t know what time Liz is coming. She could get here any time. (mo?da ce stici)

9. Could have (done) Could have (done) koristimo za mogucnost, ali koja je postojala u pro?losti: The situation is bad, but it could be worse. (now) The situation was bad, but it could have been worse. (past) It could have happened = it was possible but did not happen: I didn?t know that you wanted to go to the concert. I could have got you a ticket. (I didn?t get you a ticket.) = Nisam znala da ?eli? da ide? na koncert. Mogla sam ti uzeti kartu. (ali nisam) Dave was lucky. He could have hurt himself when he fell, but he?s OK.

10. Couldn?t (do) i couldn?t have (done) Couldn?t (do) = it is not possible/will not be possible (nepostojanje mogucnosti u sada?njosti ili buducnosti): I couldn?t live in a big city. I would hate it. Everything?s fine right now. Things couldn?t be better. Za nepostojanje mogucnosti u pro?losti: couldn?t have done = it was not possible We had a really good holiday. It couldn?t have been better. (Divno smo se proveli na odmoru. Nije moglo biti bolje.)

11. Must and can?t Must je takode modalni glagol, s tim ?to ima samo jedan oblik ? sada?nji. Znacenje: must mo?e da oznacava postojanje obaveze, ali takode izra?ava i verovatnocu, odnosno da je govornik siguran u ne?to. It must be true = I am sure it is true You?ve been travelling all day. You must be tired. (I?m sure you?re tired.) Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day. Sally gave me her phone number. I must have it somewhere.

12. Kad ?elimo da ka?emo da smo sigurni da ne?to nije verovatno ili moguce, koristimo can?t: It can?t be true = I?m sure it is not true You?ve just had lunch. You can?t be hungry already. They haven?t lived here for very long. They can?t know many people. Can?t u ovaknoj upotrebi prevodimo sa ?sigurno ne? ili ?nemoguce je?

13. Za pro?lost koristimo konstrukcije: Must have (done) There?s nobody home. They must have gone out. (Sigurno su iza?li.)= I?m sure they went out. Can?t have (done) Sue hasn?t contacted me. She can?t have got my message. (Sigurno nije dobila moju poruku.) = I?m sure she didn?t get my message. Must/can?t (do) = sigurni smo da je ne?to moguce (ili nemoguce) u sada?njosti Must / can?t have (done) = sigurni smo da je ne?to bilo moguce (ili nemoguce) u pro?losti.

14. May and might 1 Modalni glagoli may i might oznacavaju mogucnost/verovatnocu da je ne?to tacno. Might nije pro?lo vreme od may, vec se koristi da oznaci manju verovatnocu, tj. da je govornik smatra da je ne?to manje verovatno . She may know = perhaps she knows She might know Odricni oblici su may not i might not: She may/might not work here any more = perhaps she doesn?t work here.

15. Za mogucnost/verovatnocu u pro?losti, koristimo may/might have (done): I wonder why Kate didn?t answer the phone. She may have been asleep = perhaps she was asleep She might have not known that we were coming.= perhaps she didn?t know May/might i could imaju skoro isto znacenje. The story could be true= It may/might be true. Ali couldn?t ima drugacije znacenje od may/might not: Sarah couldn?t have got my message ? Sarah might not have got my message.

16. May and might 2 May/might takode koristimo da bismo govorili o mogucim aktivnostima ili dogadajima u buducnosti: I haven?t decided yet where to go for my holidays. I may go to Greece. = perhaps I will go Take an umbrella with you. It might rain later. = perhaps it will rain Uporedi will i may/might: I will be late this evening. (sigurno) I may/might be late this evening. (moguce)

17. Obicno su may i might medusobno zamenljivi, a razlika u znacenju je minimalna: I may go to Greece ili I might go to Greece Ali ukoliko govorimo o nerealnoj situaciji, mo?emo koristiti samo might: If I were in Tom?s position, I might look for another job. (but I am not in Tom?s position) = Kad bih bio na Tomovom mestu, mo?da bih tra?io drugi posao.

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