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Chapter 7 Personal Growth and Work Stress. Objectives. Describe the characteristics of adult development Explain Levinson’s concept of life structures Recognize career anchors and their significance Describe the functions that mentors perform

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Chapter 7

Personal Growth

and Work Stress


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Objectives

  • Describe the characteristics of adult development

  • Explain Levinson’s concept of life structures

  • Recognize career anchors and their significance

  • Describe the functions that mentors perform

  • Identify trends in career management and planning

  • Explain the transactional model of career stress

  • Assess your current life-career situation and develop a plan for the future

7-1

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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“A plan is nothing; planning is everything.” Eisenhower

People who set clearly stated career goals are more likely to achieve them

7-2

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Levinson’s AdultDevelopment Model

  • Leaving the family (16-23 yrs.)

  • Getting into the adult world (26-33)

  • Settling down and becoming one’s own person (38-50)

  • Restabilization and entering middle age (55-60)

7-3

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Levinson’s Adult Development Model

  • Task is to establish a life structure – “the pattern or design of a person’s life” – appropriate for each stage of life

  • Life structures remain stable for about 7 years and are reevaluated during transitional periods

  • Transitions occur around 30, 40, and 50 years of age

  • If very turbulent, they are called crises – “the midlife crisis”

7-4

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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The New “Protean” Career Contract

  • Career managed by person, not organization

  • Career as lifelong series of experiences, skills, learning, transitions, and identity changes

  • Development is continuous learning, self-directed, relational, and found in work challenges

7-5

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Career Anchors - Defined

Motivational, attitudinal, and value syndromes formed early in life that function to guide and constrain people’s careers

7-6

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Schein’s Career Anchors

  • Technical/Functional/Managerial Competence

  • Security and Stability

  • Creativity

  • Entrepreneurship

7-7

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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…Schein’s Career Anchors

  • Autonomy and Independence

  • Service

  • Pure Challenge

  • Lifestyle

7-8

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Four Patterns of Careers

  • Linear – progress through series of jobs that increase in authority and responsibility

  • Steady-state/expert – committed to a field or specialty; field-related expertise

  • Spiral – move across disciplines from one field to a related one; builds on old skills but also requires new skills

  • Transitory – frequent unrelated job changes

7-9

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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How to Balance Dual Careers

  • Limiting the impact of family on work (delay, subcontract)

  • Taking turns (trade off career and child care)

  • Participating in joint ventures (same career or same organization)

  • Choosing independent careers (commute)

  • Subordinating one career to the other (one partner takes a less demanding job or stays at home so the other can optimize career opportunities)

7-10

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Mentor - Defined

A senior person within the organization who assumes responsibility for a junior person

7-11

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Benefits of Extensive Mentoring

  • More promotions

  • More highly paid

  • High job satisfaction

    *Especially helpful for

    minorities and women

7-12

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Career Functions of Mentors

  • Sponsorship

  • Exposure and Visibility

  • Coaching

  • Protection

  • Challenging Assignment

7-13

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Psychosocial Functions of Mentors

  • Role modeling

  • Acceptance and confirmation

  • Counseling

  • Friendship

7-14

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Stress - Defined

The nonspecific response of an organism to demands that tax or exceed its resources

Three stages in the stress response:

  • Alarm

  • Resistance

  • Exhaustion

7-15

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Positive

When it motivates us to work harder

Negative

When it exceeds our coping abilities and interferes with our ability to perform

When it results in illness

Is Stress Good or Bad?

7-16

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Major Causes of Work Stress

  • Change

  • Lack of control

  • High workload

7-17

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Costs of Work Stress

  • Decreased job satisfaction

  • Decreased job performance

  • Increased absenteeism

  • Increased alcohol and drug abuse

  • Illness

7-18

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Transactional Model of Career Stress

7-19

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Coping Strategies

  • Direct action – remove the stressor by changing the situation

  • Cognitive reappraisal – change the way we think about the stressor or situation

  • Symptom management – treat

    the stress reaction via

    exercise or meditation

7-20

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Balancing Work and Nonwork

  • Design the organization and jobs to support employee growth and achievement

  • Develop policies that support both work and personal life interests

  • Recognize that the nature of work and careers have changed

7-21

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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Tripod of Life Plan Perspectives

The Future

Life

Plan

The Past

The Present

7-22

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner


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