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Behavioral Pyramid of Interventions “A Strategy for Every Child”

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Behavioral Pyramid of Interventions “A Strategy for Every Child”. Presented By: Terry Flanders. Special Services. Intensive. Strategic. Core. Pyramid of Intervention. Why are we discussing Pyramids of Interventions?.

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slide1

Behavioral Pyramid of Interventions

“A Strategy for Every Child”

Presented By: Terry Flanders

slide2

Special Services

Intensive

Strategic

Core

Pyramid of Intervention

slide3

Why are we discussing Pyramids of Interventions?

Multi-tiered systems of intervention are consistent with federal legislation (Individuals with disabilities education actions IDEA 2004) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB 2001) and evidenced based research.

slide4

According to OSEP

  • Students with disabilities have more than three times the number of serious misconduct incidences per 1,000 students than do typically developing students
  • Over 1/3 of adolescents with disabilities have been suspended or expelled.
slide5

Challenging behavior is evident in even the youngest children served by IDEA (10 to 40%)

  • Over 65% of students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders drop out of school
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Approximately 48% of children with problem behaviors in kindergarten have been placed in special education by 4th grade.

slide7

Because young people between the ages of 5 and 21 spend approximately 10 of the 12 months of the year in school with both good and bad behavior being reinforced in school, do we need a more compelling reason to seriously address behavioral issues?

slide8

Definition of Pyramid of Interventions

A Pyramid of Intervention is a framework through which school districts provide integrated academic and behavioral supports within a multi-tiered model.

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Before we go on to address teaching styles and various strategies, lets take a minute to reflect…

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Absolutely the most important component of establishing and maintaining class discipline is to create positive, meaningful relationships with every student.

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3 Behavior Management Styles:

Assertive, Non Assertive, Hostile

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Communication Styles

  • Alpha Commands (also known as effective commands or precision requests)-concise instructions that elicit a distinct outcome, are precise, specific, direct, given one at a time, stated positively and in a calm tone of voice (e.g. “Please sit down” or “Turn to page 22”)
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Communication Styles

  • Beta Commands-commands that are NOT Alpha commands, such as using a questioning format, multiple steps, negatively stated or not specific (e.g. “Will you sit down?” or “Behave yourself.”)
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Data on Compliance

  • Based on 75 Classroom Observations from Pre-K through High School
  • Average 78% compliance with Alpha Commands
  • Average of 40% compliance with Beta Commands
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Teachers that averaged over 80% compliance used Alpha Commands AND had at least 3 positives for every negative (ratio of 3:1 positives to negative) had an average of 93% compliance (range 88% to 100%)

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So what does this mean?

  • Teaching staff who use Alpha (effective commands) and to provide ration of 4 positives to every negative sets a good foundation for classroom management.
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This does not cost anything and involves no additional time (no loss of instructional time).

  • This involves a change in communication style of the adults (change in their behavior).
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The best intervention is people who care. The children in successful

studies were not successful because of just a more extensive menu of interventions. They were ultimately successful because someone cared.

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Pyramid of Behavioral Interventions

Tier I 80-90% of students

Tier I interventions are universal, school wide, preventive and/or proactive.

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The very first Tier I strategy is to establish a class-wide discipline plan which includes rules, supportive feedback and a hierarchy of consequences. Teach the plan.

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(Close to Home c Reprinted with permission of Universal Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)
slide23

Classroom Rules

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Supportive Feedback

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Corrective Actions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Classroom Rules

  • Follow directions the first time given
  • Do not interrupt others
  • Keep hands, feet and objects to yourself
  • Enter the classroom quietly
  • Bring required materials to class
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Supportive Feedback

  • Verbal praise
  • Positive calls/notes to parents
  • Coupons
  • Exempt homework pass
  • Tangible rewards
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Corrective Actions

1st offense= name written down

2nd offense= move to another seat (10 minutes)

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3rd offense= remain for 2 minutes at class change

4th offense= lunch detention and call parents

5th offense= severe clause-sent student to the office

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Have a large clock in view and refer to it frequently

  • Change seating as needed
  • Use the terms choose, chose and choice to teach responsibility and ownership
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Tier I (Core)

  • Be Positive
  • Contact parents within the first 2 weeks of school with positive input
  • Teach your discipline plan
  • Say what you mean, mean what you say, do what you say you are going to do
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Catch them being appropriate and provide specific reinforcement

  • Circulate, use proximity control
  • Change consequences when they cease to work
  • Maintain a good sense of humor!
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Tier I

  • Establish a “quiet office”
  • Determine a class-wide cue to get students quiet
  • Have interesting, hands on activities
  • Establish an organized method of calling on students rather than throwing out questions
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Interact with attention-seeking students before they start to act out

  • Implement a positive, class-wide reward system, change the format frequently
  • Build positive relationships with each student
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Tier I

Co-teaching

Insert baseline data

  • Social skills curriculum
  • Post school values and philosophy
  • Character education
  • Create classroom rituals (daily check in warm up activity)

Supporting Effective

Co-Teaching

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Reinforce listening

  • Alert students several minutes prior to transition
  • Teach expected student behaviors directly
  • Inform parents of expected behaviors and consequences
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Tier I

  • Classroom routines are clearly taught and followed
  • “Catch them being good” Recognize effort first then focus on accuracy
  • Expected behaviors explicitly taught
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Have a system for monitoring correct and incorrect work completion

  • Teach a “feeling” word vocabulary
  • Use behavior rubrics
slide39

Tier I

  • Play classical music
  • 100 points preparedness grade system
  • Secret student
  • Teacher proximity and eye contact
  • Positive calls home
  • Change student seating
slide40

Do stand at the door and greet the students as they enter. Provide constant supervision.

  • Structure a lesson around the target students interests
  • Offer students a face-saving out
slide41

Tier I

  • Do an “antiseptic bounce.” Interrupt escalating anger early by providing an errand etc.
  • Provide students with simple choices
  • Teach negotiation skills (assignments, expectations)
slide42

Positive peer reports

  • Rubber band intervention
  • Give an “IOU” to meet with an adult at a more convenient time
  • Establish a procedure for students to request assistance
slide43

Tier II (Strategic)

5 to 7% of students

Tier II interventions are easy to administer to small groups of students are typically short term, require limited time and staff involvement.

slide44

Tier II

  • Behavior is monitored and feed back is provided regularly to student parent, and other relevant staff
  • Involve a behavior support team
  • Develop an organizational system for an individual child
  • Short term individualized counseling
slide45

Daily school to home chart or agenda

  • Early or later class/hall transitions
  • Laminated copy of a checklist or rubric to keep at the students desk
  • Self rating behavior checklist (coach cards)
  • Establish a secret signal to cue for behavior
slide46

Tier II (Strategic)

  • Time out in a teammate’s classroom
  • Call student’s home on a scheduled basis
  • Parent shadows the student at school
  • Parent Conference
slide47

Monitoring

  • Schedule includes co-teaching classes
  • Record the student on audio or video tape
  • Individual contracts
slide48

Tier III (Intensive)

For students with marked difficulties and who have notresponded to Tier I or Tier II efforts.

slide49

Tier III (Intensive)

Tier III interventions are generally long term in nature and require the most sophisticated levels of behavioral assessment, interventions and progress monitoring. They are typically committee driven.

slide50

Some examples are:

  • SST involvement
  • 504 plans
  • Functional Behavioral Assessments
  • Data analysis drives individual problem solving
slide51

Behavioral emergency procedures are established

  • Initiate procedures to solicit help from outside agencies as DFCS, state mental health, court services
  • Parent training
slide52

Individual contracts

  • Linking of academic and behavioral supports
  • In School Suspension
  • Out of School Suspension
slide53

Behavior contract that may include participation of SRO or probation officer and parent

  • Alternative programming.
slide54

Regardless if a student is deprived, depraved, dejected or decrepit he can behave in your classroom.

slide55

Dr. Haim Ginott quote

“ I have come to a frightening conclusion. I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher I possess tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, and a child humanized or dehumanized.”

slide56

Identifying and Dealing with Anger in the Classroom

By

Alicia Gail Bryant

EMG 807

July 2002

slide57

Who’s Angry?

Anger is a normal human emotion.  Everyone experiences anger at some time for various reasons.

Anger is part of any human relationship, even (or maybe especially) student/teacher relationships.

Anger is cumulative and transferable.

slide59

Types of Anger

  • Explosive
    • Visible, quick to appear
    • Little planning or thought is involved
    • Uncontrolled behavior
    • Not deep-seated
    • Little skill needed to help work through the anger
slide60

Passive  

    • Covert; not easily noticed
    • Planning involved
    • Kid is in control of their behavior
    • Anger is deep, and though kid may need to talk about it, he/she may have trouble doing so
    • Moderate skill required to help kid work through the anger
slide61

Implosive

    • Invisible to others
    • Emotions are out of control and dictate behavior
    • Often kid doesn’t even know he/she is angry
    • Anger is hidden inside, and may be very difficult to uncover
    • Professional help is needed to deal with these situations
slide62

This kind of anger can be caused by repeated abuse, either emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.

slide63

Phases of Escalation of Anger

  • Calm
  • Trigger
    • Something that sets a person off
  • Agitation
  • Acceleration
  • Peak
slide64

De-escalation

Recovery

Hopefully, we can stop a crisis situation before it gets to the peak phase…

slide65

Characteristics of Stages of Escalation

  • Calm
    • Student is on task and following rules.  He or she responds well to praise.  The student will initiate good behavior.  He or she is focused on the goal before them, and interacts appropriately with adults and peers.
slide66

Trigger

  • The student is denied something he needs or receives a negative consequence.  The student may be provoked, be submitted to a change in routine, or experience a high pressure situation.  They may also have suffered a series of problems that they have been unable to solve.
slide67

Agitation

  • As the student becomes agitated, her eyes may dart back and forth.  She may begin to use non conversational language, and move in and out of various groups, with the result being having no membership in any group.  At the other end of the spectrum, students may withdraw, stare into space, stop working, and become still and silent.
slide68

Acceleration

As momentum increases, students may begin arguing and pushing back verbally.  They will stop working and become non-compliant and defiant.   

slide69

They will begin to provoke other students and adults as their anger escalates.  Some kids will cry, others will also walk out to escape the situation altogether.  They may threaten, intimidate, or verbally abuse others.

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Peak

  • Once students reach their peak, they may strike others or themselves, throw extreme tantrums, or hyperventilate.  They may also scream and run, or resort to other types of violence.  In extreme cases, the lives of those around the angered student become endangered.
slide71

De-escalation

  • As the student begins to “subside”, they may become confused, withdraw from the situation and those around him or her, or go to sleep.  They often deny what they have done, or blame others for the situation.   
slide72

They may go back to the task they previously abandoned, or respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

slide73

Recovery

  • Students may become subdued as they recover from an escalated episode of demonstrated anger.  At times, they may be defensive, but are often ready to begin work again on their own.  As with de-escalation, they tend not to want to discuss the situation.
slide74

Varying Experiences

Since each student is different, no two students experience the phases of escalation in the same way or in the same time frame.   

However, the adults working with students prone to outbursts of anger must work to identify the stages in individual students, and stop the process at the earliest possible stage.

slide75

How can teachers intervene to stop the escalation process?

Interventions at each of the stages of escalation are possible.  The following strategies can often stop or prevent the escalation process:

slide76

Calm phase

  • Provide a structured classroom with quality instruction and adequate attention for all students
slide77

Trigger phase

  • Provide students with formal methods for solving problems.  In addition, many students also need an individual plan in the event of a problem.
slide78

Agitation phase

  • Students who have reached the agitation phase often need personal space and time to relax.  The teacher needs to remain close and provide independent or movement activities, depending on the individual.  Students need to be involved in planning what is appropriate.
slide79

Acceleration phase

  • Once students reach this phase, teachers need to carefully monitor voice tone, and remain calm, respectful, and detached.  Students need a face-saving escape, and pre-planned strategies should be used.
slide80

Peak phase

  • Teachers need to consider physical safety needs of all present.  Later teachers need to look at possible behavior patterns leading up to such an event.
slide81

De-escalation phase

  • This is the time for isolation and cool-down time.  Students can work independently, and the classroom can be physically restored, if necessary.  Other students can resume regular activities, and the student(s) involved can be dispositioned at this time.
slide82

Recovery phase

  • Focus on normal activities and routines.  Some actions have serious consequences, and these should not be sugar-coated.  Teachers should communicate expectations that the student can succeed and meet standards.  The student should be involved in planning ways to avoid such episodes, and the episode should be closed at this time.
slide83

Anger appears to be on the rise.  Where is this increase coming from?

Changes in the American family structure and dynamics

Increasing poverty in the U.S.

Increase in instances of child abuse and neglect

Increase in exposure to violence (media, etc.)

slide84

When anger works in concert with violence and fear, rage results.  Fear is often the basis for anger…

slide85

What are today’s kids most fearful of?

  • Losing a parent (to death, divorce, a step-parent, etc.)
  • Losing face with peers
  • Going blind
  • Getting hurt (especially at school)
  • Being poor or homeless
slide86

If everyone feels anger, why don’t all kids react with violence?

In the middle class, verbal responses are often used, and can even be an effective way to deal with situations.

When kids are affected by poverty, effective verbal responses are often not known or respected.  A physical response may be all that many kids feel they have access to, or all that is understood.

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How can you deal with anger in your classroom?

Make sure your classroom is highly structured.  Kids who are angry, especially those who experience implosive anger, do not deal well with inconsistency.

slide88

Build positive relationships with students.  Make sure the environment is safe, comfortable socially, and learning takes place.

Validate anger.  Acknowledgement is important if anger is not to be buried.

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Teach kids to work through and solve problems.

Have a plan in place for dealing with out of control situations.  What kinds of things will you do and say?  Plan your responses and actions.

Model and teach positive responses to anger.

slide90

References

Straughn, L.  (2002, July 10).  Understanding and working with angry students:  You must first seek to understand if you are to be understood. 

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Educating Kentucky’s At-Risk Kids:  Best Practices for Alternative and Non-Traditional Settings.  Conference at Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY.

slide92

Whitaker, J.  (2002, July 10).  Positive behavioral support systems/Universal Tier Model.  Educating Kentucky’s At-Risk Kids:  Best Practices for Alternative and Non-Traditional Settings.  Conference at Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY.

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