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Behavioral Pyramid of Interventions “A Strategy for Every Child”. Presented By: Terry Flanders. Special Services. Intensive. Strategic. Core. Pyramid of Intervention. Why are we discussing Pyramids of Interventions?.

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Behavioral Pyramid of Interventions

“A Strategy for Every Child”

Presented By: Terry Flanders


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Special Services

Intensive

Strategic

Core

Pyramid of Intervention


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Why are we discussing Pyramids of Interventions?

Multi-tiered systems of intervention are consistent with federal legislation (Individuals with disabilities education actions IDEA 2004) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB 2001) and evidenced based research.


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According to OSEP

  • Students with disabilities have more than three times the number of serious misconduct incidences per 1,000 students than do typically developing students

  • Over 1/3 of adolescents with disabilities have been suspended or expelled.


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Because young people between the ages of 5 and 21 spend approximately 10 of the 12 months of the year in school with both good and bad behavior being reinforced in school, do we need a more compelling reason to seriously address behavioral issues?


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Definition of Pyramid of Interventions approximately 10 of the 12 months of the year in school with both good

A Pyramid of Intervention is a framework through which school districts provide integrated academic and behavioral supports within a multi-tiered model.


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Before we go on to address teaching styles and various strategies, lets take a minute to reflect…


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Absolutely strategies, lets take a minute to reflect… the most important component of establishing and maintaining class discipline is to create positive, meaningful relationships with every student.


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3 Behavior Management Styles: strategies, lets take a minute to reflect…

Assertive, Non Assertive, Hostile


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Communication Styles strategies, lets take a minute to reflect…

  • Alpha Commands (also known as effective commands or precision requests)-concise instructions that elicit a distinct outcome, are precise, specific, direct, given one at a time, stated positively and in a calm tone of voice (e.g. “Please sit down” or “Turn to page 22”)


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Communication Styles strategies, lets take a minute to reflect…

  • Beta Commands-commands that are NOT Alpha commands, such as using a questioning format, multiple steps, negatively stated or not specific (e.g. “Will you sit down?” or “Behave yourself.”)


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Data on Compliance strategies, lets take a minute to reflect…

  • Based on 75 Classroom Observations from Pre-K through High School

  • Average 78% compliance with Alpha Commands

  • Average of 40% compliance with Beta Commands


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So what does this mean? Commands AND had at least 3 positives for every negative (ratio of 3:1 positives to negative) had an average of 93% compliance (range 88% to 100%)

  • Teaching staff who use Alpha (effective commands) and to provide ration of 4 positives to every negative sets a good foundation for classroom management.


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The Beatings Will Continue Until Morale Improves (no loss of instructional time).


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The best intervention is people who care. The children in successful

studies were not successful because of just a more extensive menu of interventions. They were ultimately successful because someone cared.


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Pyramid of Behavioral Interventions successful

Tier I 80-90% of students

Tier I interventions are universal, school wide, preventive and/or proactive.


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The very first Tier I strategy is to establish a class-wide discipline plan which includes rules, supportive feedback and a hierarchy of consequences. Teach the plan.


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(Close to Home c Reprinted with permission of Universal Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)


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Classroom Rules Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Supportive Feedback

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Corrective Actions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


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  • Classroom Rules Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)

  • Follow directions the first time given

  • Do not interrupt others

  • Keep hands, feet and objects to yourself

  • Enter the classroom quietly

  • Bring required materials to class


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  • Supportive Feedback Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)

  • Verbal praise

  • Positive calls/notes to parents

  • Coupons

  • Exempt homework pass

  • Tangible rewards


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Context Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)


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Corrective Actions Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)

1st offense= name written down

2nd offense= move to another seat (10 minutes)


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3rd offense= remain for 2 minutes at class change Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)

4th offense= lunch detention and call parents

5th offense= severe clause-sent student to the office


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Other Tier I Strategies are: Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)


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Tier I (Core) Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.)

  • Be Positive

  • Contact parents within the first 2 weeks of school with positive input

  • Teach your discipline plan

  • Say what you mean, mean what you say, do what you say you are going to do


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Tier I reinforcement

  • Establish a “quiet office”

  • Determine a class-wide cue to get students quiet

  • Have interesting, hands on activities

  • Establish an organized method of calling on students rather than throwing out questions


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  • Interact with attention-seeking students reinforcementbefore they start to act out

  • Implement a positive, class-wide reward system, change the format frequently

  • Build positive relationships with each student


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Tier I reinforcement

Co-teaching

Insert baseline data

  • Social skills curriculum

  • Post school values and philosophy

  • Character education

  • Create classroom rituals (daily check in warm up activity)

Supporting Effective

Co-Teaching


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  • Reinforce listening reinforcement

  • Alert students several minutes prior to transition

  • Teach expected student behaviors directly

  • Inform parents of expected behaviors and consequences


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Tier I reinforcement

  • Classroom routines are clearly taught and followed

  • “Catch them being good” Recognize effort first then focus on accuracy

  • Expected behaviors explicitly taught


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Tier I completion

  • Play classical music

  • 100 points preparedness grade system

  • Secret student

  • Teacher proximity and eye contact

  • Positive calls home

  • Change student seating


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Tier I Provide constant supervision.

  • Do an “antiseptic bounce.” Interrupt escalating anger early by providing an errand etc.

  • Provide students with simple choices

  • Teach negotiation skills (assignments, expectations)


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  • Positive peer reports Provide constant supervision.

  • Rubber band intervention

  • Give an “IOU” to meet with an adult at a more convenient time

  • Establish a procedure for students to request assistance


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Tier II (Strategic) Provide constant supervision.

5 to 7% of students

Tier II interventions are easy to administer to small groups of students are typically short term, require limited time and staff involvement.


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Tier II Provide constant supervision.

  • Behavior is monitored and feed back is provided regularly to student parent, and other relevant staff

  • Involve a behavior support team

  • Develop an organizational system for an individual child

  • Short term individualized counseling


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  • Daily school to home chart or agenda Provide constant supervision.

  • Early or later class/hall transitions

  • Laminated copy of a checklist or rubric to keep at the students desk

  • Self rating behavior checklist (coach cards)

  • Establish a secret signal to cue for behavior


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Tier II (Strategic) Provide constant supervision.

  • Time out in a teammate’s classroom

  • Call student’s home on a scheduled basis

  • Parent shadows the student at school

  • Parent Conference


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  • Monitoring Provide constant supervision.

  • Schedule includes co-teaching classes

  • Record the student on audio or video tape

  • Individual contracts


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Tier III (Intensive) Provide constant supervision.

For students with marked difficulties and who have notresponded to Tier I or Tier II efforts.


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Tier III (Intensive) Provide constant supervision.

Tier III interventions are generally long term in nature and require the most sophisticated levels of behavioral assessment, interventions and progress monitoring. They are typically committee driven.


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Some examples are: Provide constant supervision.

  • SST involvement

  • 504 plans

  • Functional Behavioral Assessments

  • Data analysis drives individual problem solving


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  • Individual contracts Provide constant supervision.

  • Linking of academic and behavioral supports

  • In School Suspension

  • Out of School Suspension


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Regardless if a student is deprived, depraved, dejected or decrepit he can behave in your classroom.


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Dr. Haim Ginott quote decrepit he

“ I have come to a frightening conclusion. I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher I possess tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, and a child humanized or dehumanized.”


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Identifying and Dealing with Anger in the Classroom decrepit he

By

Alicia Gail Bryant

EMG 807

July 2002


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Who’s Angry? decrepit he

Anger is a normal human emotion.  Everyone experiences anger at some time for various reasons.

Anger is part of any human relationship, even (or maybe especially) student/teacher relationships.

Anger is cumulative and transferable.


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…in other words, anyone can be angry!  However, some students are angrier than others. 


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Types of Anger students are angrier than others. 

  • Explosive

    • Visible, quick to appear

    • Little planning or thought is involved

    • Uncontrolled behavior

    • Not deep-seated

    • Little skill needed to help work through the anger


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  • Passive   students are angrier than others. 

    • Covert; not easily noticed

    • Planning involved

    • Kid is in control of their behavior

    • Anger is deep, and though kid may need to talk about it, he/she may have trouble doing so

    • Moderate skill required to help kid work through the anger


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  • Implosive students are angrier than others. 

    • Invisible to others

    • Emotions are out of control and dictate behavior

    • Often kid doesn’t even know he/she is angry

    • Anger is hidden inside, and may be very difficult to uncover

    • Professional help is needed to deal with these situations


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This kind of anger can be caused by repeated abuse, either emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.


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Phases of Escalation of Anger emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.

  • Calm

  • Trigger

    • Something that sets a person off

  • Agitation

  • Acceleration

  • Peak


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De-escalation emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.

Recovery

Hopefully, we can stop a crisis situation before it gets to the peak phase…


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Characteristics of Stages of Escalation emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.

  • Calm

    • Student is on task and following rules.  He or she responds well to praise.  The student will initiate good behavior.  He or she is focused on the goal before them, and interacts appropriately with adults and peers.


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Trigger emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.

  • The student is denied something he needs or receives a negative consequence.  The student may be provoked, be submitted to a change in routine, or experience a high pressure situation.  They may also have suffered a series of problems that they have been unable to solve.


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Agitation emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.

  • As the student becomes agitated, her eyes may dart back and forth.  She may begin to use non conversational language, and move in and out of various groups, with the result being having no membership in any group.  At the other end of the spectrum, students may withdraw, stare into space, stop working, and become still and silent.


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Acceleration emotional or physical, often by peers.  School shooters exhibit implosive anger.

As momentum increases, students may begin arguing and pushing back verbally.  They will stop working and become non-compliant and defiant.   


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Peak their

  • Once students reach their peak, they may strike others or themselves, throw extreme tantrums, or hyperventilate.  They may also scream and run, or resort to other types of violence.  In extreme cases, the lives of those around the angered student become endangered.


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De-escalation their

  • As the student begins to “subside”, they may become confused, withdraw from the situation and those around him or her, or go to sleep.  They often deny what they have done, or blame others for the situation.   


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Recovery respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • Students may become subdued as they recover from an escalated episode of demonstrated anger.  At times, they may be defensive, but are often ready to begin work again on their own.  As with de-escalation, they tend not to want to discuss the situation.


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Varying Experiences respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

Since each student is different, no two students experience the phases of escalation in the same way or in the same time frame.   

However, the adults working with students prone to outbursts of anger must work to identify the stages in individual students, and stop the process at the earliest possible stage.


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How can teachers intervene to stop the escalation process? respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

Interventions at each of the stages of escalation are possible.  The following strategies can often stop or prevent the escalation process:


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Calm phase respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • Provide a structured classroom with quality instruction and adequate attention for all students


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Trigger phase respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • Provide students with formal methods for solving problems.  In addition, many students also need an individual plan in the event of a problem.


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Agitation phase respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • Students who have reached the agitation phase often need personal space and time to relax.  The teacher needs to remain close and provide independent or movement activities, depending on the individual.  Students need to be involved in planning what is appropriate.


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Acceleration phase respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • Once students reach this phase, teachers need to carefully monitor voice tone, and remain calm, respectful, and detached.  Students need a face-saving escape, and pre-planned strategies should be used.


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Peak phase respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • Teachers need to consider physical safety needs of all present.  Later teachers need to look at possible behavior patterns leading up to such an event.


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De-escalation phase respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • This is the time for isolation and cool-down time.  Students can work independently, and the classroom can be physically restored, if necessary.  Other students can resume regular activities, and the student(s) involved can be dispositioned at this time.


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Recovery phase respond well to new directions.  They generally avoid any discussion of the situation that doesn’t involve blaming others.

  • Focus on normal activities and routines.  Some actions have serious consequences, and these should not be sugar-coated.  Teachers should communicate expectations that the student can succeed and meet standards.  The student should be involved in planning ways to avoid such episodes, and the episode should be closed at this time.


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Anger appears to be on the rise.  Where is this increase coming from?

Changes in the American family structure and dynamics

Increasing poverty in the U.S.

Increase in instances of child abuse and neglect

Increase in exposure to violence (media, etc.)


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When anger works in concert with violence and fear, rage results.  Fear is often the basis for anger…


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What are today’s kids most fearful of? results.  Fear is often the basis for anger…

  • Losing a parent (to death, divorce, a step-parent, etc.)

  • Losing face with peers

  • Going blind

  • Getting hurt (especially at school)

  • Being poor or homeless


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If everyone feels anger, why don’t all kids react with violence?

In the middle class, verbal responses are often used, and can even be an effective way to deal with situations.

When kids are affected by poverty, effective verbal responses are often not known or respected.  A physical response may be all that many kids feel they have access to, or all that is understood.


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How can you deal with anger in your classroom? violence?

Make sure your classroom is highly structured.  Kids who are angry, especially those who experience implosive anger, do not deal well with inconsistency.


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Build positive relationships with students.  Make sure the environment is safe, comfortable socially, and learning takes place.

Validate anger.  Acknowledgement is important if anger is not to be buried.


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Teach kids to work through and solve problems. environment is safe, comfortable socially, and learning takes place.

Have a plan in place for dealing with out of control situations.  What kinds of things will you do and say?  Plan your responses and actions.

Model and teach positive responses to anger.


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References environment is safe, comfortable socially, and learning takes place.

Straughn, L.  (2002, July 10).  Understanding and working with angry students:  You must first seek to understand if you are to be understood. 


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Educating Kentucky’s At-Risk Kids:  Best Practices for Alternative and Non-Traditional Settings.  Conference at Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY.


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Whitaker, J.  (2002, July 10).  Positive behavioral support systems/Universal Tier Model.  Educating Kentucky’s At-Risk Kids:  Best Practices for Alternative and Non-Traditional Settings.  Conference at Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY.


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