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A 3-Tiered Approach to Aligning Prevention and Intervention Efforts. Stephanie Wood-Garnett Executive Director State Improvement Grant. PURPOSE. Develop a common foundation for discussing evidence-based intervention Discuss intervention/prevention research

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A 3-Tiered Approach to Aligning Prevention and Intervention Efforts

Stephanie Wood-Garnett

Executive Director

State Improvement Grant


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PURPOSE Efforts

  • Develop a common foundation for discussing evidence-based intervention

  • Discuss intervention/prevention research

  • Review research on the Student Support Team (SST) and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS).


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OUR GOAL: EffortsLEAVE NO CHILD BEHIND

  • Schools must have strong systems focused on proactive and preventative strategies designed to meet the needs of a diverse student population.

  • Classrooms and non-classroom settings need to be places where a range of student abilities are supported.


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Tertiary Prevention: Efforts

Specialized

Individualized

*Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

Academics and Behaviors

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Targeted Interventions

*Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students



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Lavar Arrington Efforts

Darrell Green

Dexter Manley


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Tim Duncan Efforts

Kobe Bryant

Allen Iverson


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Martha Stewart Efforts

Oprah Winphrey

Howard Stern


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Academics Efforts

% Green Zone

% Yellow Zone

% Red Zone

Behavior

% Green Zone

% Yellow Zone

% Red Zone

What % of Your Students Are…



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Reach Me Teach Me… Do What You Need to Improve?

Why Your Building Needs SSTs to Support School Improvement


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Research Shows… Do What You Need to Improve?

All students regardless of socioeconomic status– need sustained support to succeed.

James Comer, School Development Program, Yale University


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Research Shows… Do What You Need to Improve?

  • Studies indicate that for African American and Latino students, positive teacher-student relationships greatly impact student achievement (Baker, 1999; Lee, 1999; Slaughter-Defoe & Carlson, 1996).


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Research Shows… Do What You Need to Improve?

“No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship”

  • James Comer

  • Yale University


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Research Shows… Do What You Need to Improve?

  • By high school, nearly 40-60% of all students are chronically disengaged from school (Klem and Connell, 2004).


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Research Shows… Do What You Need to Improve?

  • Students who are connected to school are less likely to:

    • Use substances

    • Exhibit emotional distress

    • Demonstrate deviant/destructive behavior

    • Experience suicidal thoughts/attempt suicide

    • Become pregnant

    • Skip school

    • Engage in bullying/fighting/vandalism

      • (Lonczak, Abbot, Hawkins, Kosterman & Catalano, 2002; Samdal, Nutbeam, Wold & Kannas, 1998; Schapps, 2003; Wilson & Elliott, 2003).


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Research Shows… Do What You Need to Improve?

  • In order to increase school-student connections:

    • Implement high standards

    • Provide academic supports to all students

    • Implement fair/consistent discipline policies

    • Create trusting relationships (in-school and school-home)

    • Support teachers in using new instructional strategies and implementing classroom management

    • Foster high parent/family expectations

    • Ensure that students feel close to at least one adult in the school building

      • Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health &University of MN, 2003)


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Every Child a Reader by Third Grade Do What You Need to Improve?

A vision or a reality?



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Proliferation of Reading Research read on grade level)?


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Research Shows… read on grade level)?

  • Rate of reading failure for African Americans, Hispanics, limited English speakers, and poor children ranges is 60% (70% in urban areas).

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


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Research Shows… read on grade level)?

  • Approximately 50% of children and adolescents with a history of substance abuse have reading problems.


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Research Shows… read on grade level)?

  • Almost seven thousand students drop out of high school every school day (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2006).

    • Of the children who will eventually drop out of school, >75% report reading difficulties (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)

    • The students lack the literacy skills to keep up with the high school curriculum (Kamil, 2003; Snow & Biancarosa, 2003).


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Research Shows… read on grade level)?

  • The bulk of older struggling readers and writers can read, but cannot understand what they read (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2006).


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2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading read on grade level)?by Race/Ethnicity, Nation

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/


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2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading read on grade level)?by Family Income, Nation

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/


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2005 NAEP Grade 8 Math read on grade level)?by Race/Ethnicity, Nation

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/


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2005 NAEP Grade 8 Math read on grade level)?by Family Income, Nation

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/


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Students who remain in school but continue to struggle are often placed in a variety of educational programs


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Special Education Referrals often placed in a variety of educational programs

  • Academic problems (primarily reading deficiencies)

  • Behavioral problems

    Donovan & Cross, 2002; Learning Disabilities Association of America, 1996; Ysseldyke, Vanderwood & Shriner, 1997)


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INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION IMPROVEMENT ACT (2004)

  • Reflects heightened intensity that we must do morebefore referring children to special education.


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IDEA 2004 (2004)

  • In making a determination of eligibility under Section 614(b)(4)(A) of IDEA:

    • a child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is lack of appropriate instruction in reading, including in the essential components of reading instruction (as defined in Section 1208(3) of ESEA); lack of instruction in math; or limited English proficiency. [614(b)(5) of IDEA].


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INTERVENTION (2004)“IDEA”S

  • Response to Intervention (RTI)

  • Early Intervening Services (EIS)

  • Disproportionality



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AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION (2004)

  • African American students:

    • 14.8% of the student population

    • 20.2% of the students in programs for students with disabilities

    • 2.9 times as likely to be labeled mentally retarded (MR)

    • 1.9 times as likely to labeled seriously emotionally disturbed (SED)

    • 1.3 times as likely to be labeled as having a learning disability (LD)

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (2000)


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BOYS OVER-REPRESENTED (2004)

  • 1.9 million girls and 3.8 million boys are classified as special education (U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, 2000)

  • Boys dominate the emotionally disturbed category:

    • 90% in Kansas City

    • 55% in Milwaukee

    • 76% in Washington, DC


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TEAM (2004)

Together Everybody Achieves More…


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SST Teams (2004)

PBIS Teams

Discipline Teams



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SSTs: 30 YEARS IN THE MAKING (2004)

  • Began as a special education mandate in the 1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act which required the use of multidisciplinary teams in the referral/placement process (Rosenfeld & Gravois, 1999).

  • The function and purpose of SSTs changed as schools and families discovered the benefits of intervening earlier for students. By 1979 Chalfant and colleagues developed Teacher Assistance Teams (Safran,1996).

  • Currently most states require some form of intervention prior to special education referral:

    • 69% of states mandate prereferral intervention teams

    • 86% of states require or recommend pre-referral intervention teams (Truscott, Cohen, Sams, Sanborn & Frank, 2005)


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IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE SSTS (2004)

  • Reduce referrals to special education

  • Improve academic achievement

  • Improve student behavior (including school attendance)

  • Improve school-parental communication and relationships

  • Improve teacher efficacy

  • Increase collaboration in schools


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PURPOSE AND FUNCTION (2004)OF SSTS

  • Support students placed at risk for school failure

  • Support school personnel with difficult to teach students

  • Support families in meeting their children’s needs at school and at home

  • Support schools in meeting school improvement objectives


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PURPOSE AND FUNCTION (2004)OF SSTS

  • Filter referrals for bias in referral/placement decisions based on factors such as race, gender, socio-economic class (Harry & Anderson, 1994)

  • Many studies have found indicators of teacher “arbitrariness” in referrals (Fuchs, 1991)


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PURPOSE AND FUNCTION (2004)OF SSTS

  • SST is not to “operate as a special education eligibility or placement committee” (NABSE and ILIAD Project, 2002, p. 19).

  • SST is NOT meant to deny services to students who may actually have a disability.

  • SSTs should NOT assume the difficulty lies solely within the child.


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Research Shows (2004)…

  • 80% of teachers polled report they feel ill-equipped to teach diverse populations (Futrell, Gomez, and Bedden, 2003).

  • 70% of teachers report they are not well-prepared to teach English Language Learners (National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)


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Research Shows (2004)…

Teacher beliefs are extremely important; their beliefs influence their expectations and judgments about students’ abilities, effort, and progress in school (Obiakor, 1999).


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SST PROCEDURES (2004)

  • Individual interventions

  • Group interventions

  • Meeting occurrence (frequency/duration)

  • Variations in implementation

    • Elementary school

    • Middle/Junior High school

    • High school


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SST MEMBERSHIP (2004)

  • Roles of Members

    • Instructional model vs. behavioral model

    • Variety of staff roles involved in the SST

  • Types of membership

    • Involuntary

    • Voluntary

    • Paid

    • Elected

  • Service period

    • All year

    • Rotations (e.g. monthly or quarterly)

    • Bi-annual


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SST MEMBERSHIP (2004)

  • Effectiveness of model based on membership and/or needs of the school

    • General educators only

    • Grade level teams

    • Departmental teams

    • Parental involvement on teams

    • Student involvement on teams

    • Agency/community involvement on teams (e.g. LSRT)


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INEFFECTIVE TEAM PROCEDURES (2004)

  • Waste time (disorganized/inconclusive)

  • Members feel isolated

  • Individuals dominate

  • Include team members who do not value the work

  • Do not value other members’ ideas

  • No clear roles for team members

  • Poor process

  • Over-emphasize process to the exclusion of content

  • Focus on irrelevant information

  • Allow hidden agendas and politics to take precedence

Preskill & Torres (1999). Evaluative Inquiry for Learning in Organizations, p. 33.


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Use data in all discussions (2004)

Establish positive student goals

Align interventions with the desired results

Review student progress regularly

Set measurable outcomes

Include evaluation measures

SST PROCEDURES


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Where (2004)’s the Data?!!!

  • Absence of direct measures of learning observation, test scores, curriculum- based assessment results. Leads to over-reliance on teacher opinions an team consensus (Safran, 1996).


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Primary (2004)

Interventions


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School Improvement Planning (2004)

  • Primary – PBS School-wide

  • Secondary/Tertiary- SST Process


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BEHAVIOR (2004)

CONTENT

SSTs

FAMILY

COMMUNITY


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CONTACT INFORMATION (2004)

  • Stephanie Wood-Garnett

  • Executive Director, State Improvement Grant

  • District of Columbia Public Schools

  • www.dcsig.org

  • [email protected]

  • 202-442-5539


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