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Evaluation and stance in public and commercial broadcasters’ news bulletins. Gisela Redeker & Evelien Klok University of Groningen. This ppt file will be made available at http://www.let.rug.nl/~redeker. Overview. Public vs Commercial Broadcasters’ News Corpus: Internet News Bulletins

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Evaluation and stance in public and commercial broadcasters news bulletins

Evaluation and stance in public and commercial broadcasters’ news bulletins

Gisela Redeker & Evelien Klok

University of Groningen

This ppt file will be made available at

http://www.let.rug.nl/~redeker

Evaluation and Text Types Augsburg, 23 July 2005


Overview
Overview

  • Public vs Commercial Broadcasters’ News

  • Corpus: Internet News Bulletins

  • Appraisal Analysis

  • Results

  • Preliminary Conclusions

  • Questions and Problems

Redeker & Klok


Public and commercial news broadcasts
Public and Commercial News Broadcasts

  • Dutch public broadcaster NOS

    • Mission: information, inspiration, entertainment

    • TV news: NOS Journaal

    • Internet news: www.nos.nl

  • Dutch commercial broadcaster RTL4

    • Mission: easy entertainment

    • TV news: RTL4 Nieuws

    • Internet news: www.rtl.nl

Redeker & Klok


Corpus of internet news bulletins
Corpus of Internet News Bulletins

  • 30 topic-matched pairs of texts (NOS, RTL4) collected on six days between 29 Sept – 6 Oct 2004 (excluding the weekend)

  • Topics: national and international political news, some human interest items

  • Number of words:

Redeker & Klok



Appraisal analysis attitude
Appraisal Analysis: Attitude

  • Affect: emotional positioning

  • Judgement: ethical positioning

    • explicit, provoked, evoked

  • Appreciation: esthetic positioning

Based on Iedema et al (1994), White (1998), and Martin & Rose (2003)

Added: source of attitude (not only for affect)

Redeker & Klok


Appraisal analysis engagement
Appraisal Analysis: Engagement

  • Monogloss

    • Facts, author’s interpretations, presuppositions

  • Dialogic Contraction

    • Disclaim: Denial, Counter

    • Proclaim: Pronounce, Concur, Endorse

  • Dialogic Expansion

    • Entertain

    • Attribute: Acknowledge, Distance

    • Report (our addition)

Redeker & Klok


Appraisal analysis graduation
Appraisal Analysis: Graduation

  • Force

    • Intensity

    • Quantity (amount, time, space)

    • Enhancement

  • Focus

    • Valeur (sharpening/softening of category boundaries)

    • Fulfilment (qualification of processes)

Redeker & Klok






Preliminary conclusions
Preliminary Conclusions

Compared to RTL4 Internet bulletins, NOS news bulletins:

  • give more background (explanations, reactions, past and related events) for political news items;

  • contain more Attitudes, esp. a very high number of negative Judgements;

  • give more quoted or reported statements (Acknowledge);

  • contain more Graduation, esp. intensifiers, attitude-strengthening quantifications, and focus softeners.

Redeker & Klok


Problems and questions
Problems and Questions

  • Text-level quantitative analysis ignores differences in length and content

    • Classification of sentences (main news, background, etc.)

    • Sentence-level comparisons (to correlate codings)

  • How to deal with quoted discourse?

    • Our analysis includes Attitudes in discourse from other sources (and codes them as Acknowledge, Distance, or Report), but does not analyse the textual function of attributed material (e.g. Denial, Counter)

  • When to code Graduation?

    • Force: Quantity was only coded when it induced an attitudinal stance

Redeker & Klok


References
References

  • Fairclough, N. (1995). Media discourse. London: Arnold.

  • Hood, S. (2004). Appraising research. Taking a stance in academic writing. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Technology, Sidney.

  • Hunston, S. & Thompson, G. (eds.) (2000). Evaluation in text: Authorial stance and

  • the construction of discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Iedema, R., Feez, S., White, P.R.R. (1994). Media literacy. Sydney: Disadvantaged Schools Program, NSW Department of School Education.

  • Martin, J.R., & Rose, D. (2003). Working with discourse. Meaning beyond the clause. London: Continuum.

  • White, P.R.R. (1998). Telling media tales. The news story as rhetoric. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Sydney.

  • White, P.R.R. (2001-2005). An outline of appraisal. The appraisal website. http://www.grammatics.com/appraisal/index.html (1 October 2004).

  • White P.R.R. (2003). Beyond modality and hedging: a dialogic view of the language of intersubjective stance. Text 23(2): 259-284.

Redeker & Klok


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