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CEC – Natural Gas Public Interest Research Program Large Industrial/Commercial Equipment Gas Quality Stakeholders’ Technical Committee Meeting Gas Company Tower Los Angeles, CA January 10, 2006. Industrial / Commercial Burners. Area with least interchangeability data

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CEC – Natural Gas Public Interest Research ProgramLarge Industrial/Commercial EquipmentGas Quality Stakeholders’ Technical Committee MeetingGas Company TowerLos Angeles, CAJanuary 10, 2006


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Industrial / Commercial Burners

  • Area with least interchangeability data

  • GTI is conducting a survey with California focus for 11-member sponsor group of

    • Work is currently underway

    • Expected completion of Jan. 31, 2006

    • Data to be input into CEC project

  • CEC Project planned for 2006

    • GTI – industrial burner interchangeability testing

    • LBNL – appliance air quality


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Task 1 – Industrial Burners

  • Burners

    • Classification

    • Applications

    • Physical types

    • manufacturers

  • California industrial gas use by industry

  • California burner population

  • Burner performance variables

  • Burner test protocols

  • Current range of California gas

  • Established current California gas ranges

  • Anticipated LNG and off-spec gas


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Upcoming CEC Project

  • Expected start in March, 2006

  • Stakeholders committee to monitor usefulness of project results

  • Technical advisory committee relying on expertise to assist project team as project proceeds

  • Activities

    • Selection of performance variables, test protocols, burners with control systems

    • Testing in GTI laboratory furnaces

    • Modeling of burner sensitivity to fuel changes


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Industrial Burner Classification Criteria

  • Mixing Type

  • Fuel Type

  • Oxidizer Type

  • Draft Type

  • Heating Type

  • Burner Geometry


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Major Burner Control Methods

  • On / Off Operation

  • High / Low Operation

  • Modulating or variable firing rate


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Major Process Control Variables

  • Furnace Temperature

  • Load Temperature

  • Load Temperature Uniformity

  • Oxygen Trimming

  • Moisture Content

  • Time-temperature profile

  • Time at setpoint temperature


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Thermal Radiation

    • Drying

    • Plastic thermoforming

    • Paint curing

  • Radiant Tube

    • Indirect heating

  • Radiant Wall

    • Process Industry


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Metals Industry

  • Ceramic/Glass Industry


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Zinc Distillation

  • Metals Industry

  • Glass Industry


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Chemical and Hydrocarbon Process Industries


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Steam Generation

  • Water Heating

  • Space Heating


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Space Heating

  • Turbine Exhaust

  • Uniform Spread Heating


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Metal Heating

  • Metal Melting

  • Glass Melting

  • Mineral Calcining


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Burner Applications

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Petrochemical Industries


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Petroleum

35%

Other

18%

.

Nonmetallic Mineral

3%

Glass

Oil and Gas

3%

extraction

13%

Fabricated Metal

3%

Primary Metal

Food and Beverage

4%

10%

Sugar and Frozen

Chemical

Food

4%

7%

Industrial Natural Gas Demandby Sector in California (2000-2004)

Source: California Energy Commission


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Burner Use in California

  • Petrochemical(53.3% of Natural Gas Usage)

    • Natural Draft Burners

    • Radiant Burners

    • Boiler Burners

    • Flare Burners

  • Food Processing(17.0% of Natural Gas Usage)

    • Radiant Burners

    • Linear Burners

  • Glass and Cement Industry (7.3% of Natural Gas Usage)

    • Regenerative Burner Systems

    • Oxy-Fuel Burners

    • Air-Staged Diffusion Mixed


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Burner Use in California

  • Metal Industry(7.2% of Natural Gas Usage)

    • Radiant Burners

    • Oxy-fuel Burners

    • High Velocity Burners

    • Boiler Burners

    • Regenerative Burner Systems

  • Paper and Textile Industry(7.2% of Natural Gas Usage)

    • Boiler Burners

    • Radiant Burners

  • Other Use(combined total 7.9% of Natural Gas Usage)


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Burner Evaluation Criteria

Incomplete

Combustion

Flame

Temperature

Noise

Heat Flux

Emissions

Turndown

Ratio

Stability

Air-Fuel

Ratio

Exhaust

Temperature

Furnace

Temperature

Flame

Shape

Ignition

Limits


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Major Affected Parameters

  • Stability

    • Flashback, lift-off, blowout, pressure fluctuations

  • Flame shape

    • Flame length and diameter

  • Emissions

    • CO, NOx, UHC, VOC

  • Burner noise

  • Flame heat release

    • Flame and flue gas temperature, heat flux

  • Turndown ratio


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Burner Evaluation - Traditional

  • Flue gas and furnace temperature

    • Suction pyrometer (aspirator)

    • Thermocouples

  • Stability

    • Air pressure/noise fluctuation

    • Visual lift-off & flashback (premixed)

  • Flame shape and length

    • Visual observation (template measurement)

  • Heat release

    • Optical heat flux probe

    • Heat balance calculations

  • Noise

    • Microphone

  • Emissions

    • Gas sampling to external analyzers


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Burner Evaluation - Advanced

  • Exhaust and furnace temperature

    • Laser diagnostics

    • Thermal imaging

  • Stability

    • Optical sensor observation of flame stability

    • Acoustic measurements

  • Flame shape and length

    • Optical sensor monitor of flame shape

    • Composition monitoring of flame envelope (chemical length)

  • Emissions

    • Laser diagnostics (FT-IR)

    • Doping induced luminescence

  • Flame temperature

    • Laser diagnostics


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Gaseous Fuel Ranges for theState of California


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SDG&E/SoCalGas Service Area

Source: California Energy Commission




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Diffusion Mixed

Non-Staged

Air Staged

Fuel Staged

Partial Pre-mixed

Non-Staged

Air Staged

Pre-Mixed

Non-Staged

Classification Criteria

  • Mixing Type

  • Fuel Type

  • Oxidizer Type

  • Draft Type

  • Heating Type

  • Burner Geometry


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Classification Criteria

  • Mixing Type

  • Fuel Type

  • Oxidizer Type

  • Draft Type

  • Heating Type

  • Burner Geometry

  • Gas

  • Liquid

  • Solid

  • Dual


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Classification Criteria

  • Mixing Type

  • Fuel Type

  • Oxidizer Type

  • Draft Type

  • Heating Type

  • Burner Geometry

  • Air

  • Oxygen

  • Oxygen Enriched Air

  • Preheated Air


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Classification Criteria

  • Mixing Type

  • Fuel Type

  • Oxidizer Type

  • Draft Type

  • Heating Type

  • Burner Geometry

  • Forced Draft

  • Natural Draft

  • Inspirated

  • Aspirated


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Classification Criteria

  • Mixing Type

  • Fuel Type

  • Oxidizer Type

  • Draft Type

  • Heating Type

  • Burner Geometry

  • Direct

  • Indirect


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Classification Criteria

  • Mixing Type

  • Fuel Type

  • Oxidizer Type

  • Draft Type

  • Heating Type

  • Burner Geometry

  • Round Nozzle

  • Rectangular Nozzle

  • Swirl



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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Radiant Wall

  • Thermal Radiation

  • Radiant Tube


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Radiant Wall

    • Natural Draft

    • Forced Draft

      • Pre-mixed

      • Non-Premixed

  • Thermal Radiation

  • Radiant Tube


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Radiant Wall

  • Thermal Radiation

    • Porous Ceramic

    • Ported Ceramic

    • Fiber Metal

    • Flame Impingement

    • Catalytic

    • Perforated Ceramic

    • Porous Refractory

    • Wire Mesh

  • Radiant Tube


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Radiant Wall

  • Thermal Radiation

  • Radiant Tube

    • Non-Circulating

    • Recirculating

    • Forced Draft

    • Inspirating


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Pre-mixed

  • Diffusion Mixed

  • Partially Pre-mixed

  • Air Staged


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • One Box

  • Two Box

  • Rotary / Heat Wheel

  • Radiant Tube


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Round Flame

  • Wall Fired Flat Flame

  • Radiant Wall

  • Flat Flame


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Low NOx

  • Ultra Low NOx

  • Conventional


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Low NOx

    • External Flue Gas Recirculation (EFGR)

    • Air Staged

    • Fuel Staged

    • Fuel Induced Recirculation

  • Ultra Low NOx

  • Conventional


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Low NOx

  • Ultra Low NOx

    • Pre-mixed

    • Partially Premixed

    • Rapid Mix

    • Internal Flue Gas Recirculation

  • Conventional


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Low NOx

  • Ultra Low NOx

  • Conventional

    • Swirl

    • Register


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Duct

    • Linear Grid

    • Grid

  • Make-up Air


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Air-Oxy Fuel

    • Concentric Pipe

    • Multiple Nozzle

    • Flat Flame

    • Staged

  • Oxy-Fuel

    • Polishing

    • Forehearth


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Single Point

    • Non Assisted

    • Simple Steam Assisted

    • Advanced Steam Assisted

    • Low Pressure Air Assisted

  • Multi-point

  • Enclosed


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Single Point

  • Multi-point

    • Non Assisted

    • Simple Steam Assisted

    • Advanced Steam Assisted

    • Low Pressure Air Assisted

  • Enclosed


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Burner Types

  • Radiant Burners

  • High Velocity Burners

  • Regenerative Burners

  • Natural Draft Burners

  • Boiler Burners

  • Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners

  • Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners

  • Flare Burners

  • Single Point

  • Multi-point

  • Enclosed

    • Non Assisted

    • Simple Steam Assisted

    • Advanced Steam Assisted

    • Low Pressure Air Assisted


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