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Digestive System II. Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas. Liver. Extremely important accessory organ of the digestive system Main functions of the liver are: Metabolic regulation 200 metabolic reactions All blood from the digestive system is processed by the liver

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Digestive system ii

Digestive System II

Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas


Liver
Liver

  • Extremely important accessory organ of the digestive system

  • Main functions of the liver are:

  • Metabolic regulation

    • 200 metabolic reactions

    • All blood from the digestive system is processed by the liver

    • Liver removes toxins and waste products from the blood

  • Hematological regulation

    • Removal of old RBC’s

  • Synthesis and secretion of bile




Liver cells
Liver cells

  • Liver cells are called HEPATOCYTES

  • In the liver, these cells are arranged in irregular plates called LOBULES

  • Blood circulates through and around these cells entering via branches of the portal vein and hepatic artery

  • Blood leaves the lobules via the central vein




Gallbladder
Gallbladder

  • Located in a recess in the visceral surface of the right lobe of the liver

  • Stores and concentrates bile made in the liver

  • Function of bile is to emulsify fats in the diet so that the fat can be digested

  • Bile is secreted into the duodenum via the common bile duct



Transport of bile
Transport of Bile

  • Bile is secreted into small channels in the liver called bile canaliculi

  • The canaliculi form larger bile ductules

  • The ductules form the right and left hepatic duct which fuse to form the common hepatic duct

  • The cystic duct joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct


Pancreatic secretions
Pancreatic Secretions

  • Bicarbonate – neutralizes acidic chyme

  • Amylase – continues carbohydrate digestion

  • Protease enzymes

    • Trypsin which activates

    • Chymotrypsin and Carboxypeptidase

  • Lipid enzymes

    • Colipase and Phospholipase



Histology of the pancreas
Histology of the Pancreas

  • Pancreas is composed of:

  • 1. Pancreatic acini cells

    • Exocrine cells

    • Secrete the pancreatic enzymes into the duodenum

  • 2. Islet cells

    • Endocrine cells

    • Secrete insulin



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